Some war memorials
Mar 26, · The First World War caused the death of around 10 million soldiers. The second world war 18 million. The bloodsheds of and thus left devastated countries and traumatized societies. The mechanization of the fighting, the atrocities committed, had lasting effects – . Recherche de jeux. Jeux Gratuits pour Mobile, Tablette et Smart TV.
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Paris: 06 47 97 42 Chevalier Francois: B.E.P CHEVALIER-FRINAULT: 54, faubourg Madeleine Orleans: 06 80 08 96 Chicon Pierre: Ami FFP: Ciret Yann: YANN CIRET PAYSAGISTE: 5, ruelle Roncereau Saint Denis: 06 92 87 90 Claramunt Marc: ATELIER PHUSIS: 26, rue des Trois Bornes Paris: site internet. Apr 04, · Now, with the LGV extending as far south as Marseille, Valence has a through-station on an LGV just outside the built-up area. There’s also Lyria service to thee major Swiss cities; Geneva, a metro area of 1 million, lies on a low-speed extension of the LGV Sud-Est, from Paris. During ; The Battle of St Quentin, The actions at the Somme crossings, The Battle of Rosieres, The actions of Villers-Bretonneux, The Battle of the Aisne , The Battle of the Scarpe, The Final Advance in Artois in which the Division captured Douai Ended war in Belgium at Douvrain, N.W. of Mons 3rd Battalion.
Your browser does not support the audio element. To listen while you crawl…. The tank concept can actually be traced back to the Renaissance period. The first to put it on paper and effectively build a model possibly at a scale for proper military purposes was the Florentine genius, Leonardo Da Vinci.
This formation had dominated the battlefield for almost three centuries and was very effective, as the arquebusiers delivered continuous fire while being protected by a massive wall of pikes against cavalry and infantry alike.
The main problem was actually the way such a wooden monster could be moved. Only human or animal power was available back then, and even if Leonardo showed, in his drawings, cranks and shafts for two men, these would have been far from sufficient for pulling the sheer weight of this mobile fortress while permitting it to fire at the same time.
Ludovico il Moro, although impressed, never ordered such a contraption built. Nobody was prepared for the bloody stalemate which prevailed during the First World War. Officers from all countries had in mind brash pictures of daring offensives with waving flags and blaring trumpets, epic cavalry charges and massive infantry squares marching under fire, bright uniforms, tactical genius and glory.
This was quite a romantic view which was familiar to the commoners, the very same ones who then embarked with happiness and chants onto the trains. But, quickly, the grim reality of an attrition war became apparent, with death on an industrial scale. The early French offensives sank before the whirling staccato of the German Mauser machine-guns. After a full retreat, the German offensive was miraculously stopped on the Marne, a few dozen miles north-east of Paris.
From Belgium to Switzerland, all the opponents entrenched themselves. Artillery, barbed wire and machine guns took their toll on every offensive. On the German side, some attempts to break the stalemate included assault squads equipped with portable machine guns and grenades, as well as gas and flamethrowers. To blow up the trenches, artillery was insufficient, so another vicious weapon was used: the mine in fact already in use since late medieval times.
Despair started sinking in after it was seen that all major offensives, like those of Nivelle in , the Von Moltke offensive at Verdun or the dreadful Somme offensive by Sir Douglas Haig, were literally drawn in blood.
None showed any promise. In the latter, it was due to Lt. Ernest Swinton, and in the former due to Col. Jean Baptiste Estienne.
Both advocated the use of the Holt Tractor, which was then largely in use with the Allies as a gun tractor. This led to further developments and, despite many setbacks, culminated in when the first operational tanks were put to the test.
The invention of the Caterpillar track and its practical application by Benjamin Holt gave birth to a new land transportation system with great torque and pulling power, up to agricultural tasks and with good military potential. Internationally known and widely used by agriculturally-reformed large farms, but also moving and transporting logs in the New World, the Holt tractor was already a mechanical legend. The flagship model, the Holt, had been marketed since It was purchased in large numbers, first by Great Britain and then France, to be used as an artillery tractor.
Nearly 10, were used. So, it was natural to choose a large tractor to pull the weight of an armored box, its equipment and fuel. It took little time to discover the best suitable model for the worst terrains. The Holt for hp , which was much more capable than the model 70, was chosen to tow a weight of 10 tons.
The problem encountered by the engineers who tried to adapt the tractor to this new task, was the quick onset of issues with the resistance of the track shoes. The former was created especially for the test of extra-large pads, able to bear the brunt required, but also a suitable suspension system.
The French, under the leadership of Colonel Estienne, quickly devised the Schneider CA , but production was not without difficulty. Great Britain was the first to deploy its Mk.
I tanks during the Somme offensive, especially at Flers-Courcelette, on Sept. Looking more specifically at this model, the Holt chassis had, after many changes to specifications, been completely reworked. Being initially too short, it was considered unsuitable for crossing trenches.
Weighing nearly 30 tons, with a Foster-Daimler engine delivering about hp, the Mk. I could move only with agonizing slowness.
The weight was the result of a complete redesign of the chassis for the best possible crossing capabilities. In this case, the huge tracks, going all the way around the machine, enclosed a narrow central hull hosting the eight-man crew. It took almost a year and a half of painful technical development and testing, strong will from a few promoters, and administrative battles and support from the highest level for this idea to be born.
The concept was developed in parallel in the United Kingdom and in France. The latter had a slight advantage at first, but the former managed to produce and deploy their tanks faster. These famous diamond-shaped models remain, by far, the best known visual icons of the conflict.
The French however, made the choice of having multiple separate designs. The first, given by Joffre to Schneider , the second, designed by the army, for the army , by Saint Chamond and the third, developed from private funds, the Renault FT. Finally, the design choice of the latter would set a new standard and impose a great leap forward in tank design. The concept had been well-proven and the weapon was available in large quantities.
W G Wilson, who led the project, as specified by the army, split the Mk. I into two different series. The latter exchanged their expensive water-cooled Vickers with more recent models, the Lewis and the Hotchkiss air-cooled machine guns. Besides the four operators for the guns, the other four crewmen were dedicated to manoeuvring — operating the gearbox, brakes and differentials for the two tracks. It was a complex system, which posed coordination difficulties, mostly because of the unbearable environment- scorching heat, deafening noise, petrol fumes, oil and toxic exhaust gases there was no wall separating the engine from the crew.
To this was added the internal finish of the armor plates, made up of boiler steel. Where there was an impact, even if the projectile did not penetrate, an internal metal explosion was triggered, filling the crowded interior with shrapnel. In fact, crews quickly adopted a complete protective outfit thick leather belt, leather helmet with chain-mail, etc. The French, meanwhile, devised a tank that looked more like the experimental Little Willie.
Ultimately, the Schneider CA was basically an armored box with a frontal gun and machine-gun ports and ballmounts, mounted on a modified 75 Holt chassis. The original idea of Col.
However, after tests, the engine was found incapable of supporting the weight of the main armoured body. The idea was deemed impractical and abandoned, returning to a pure tank, for clearing machine gun nests, fortified positions, and preceding and supporting the infantry assault. In addition, the vehicle was high, with relatively low ground clearance. The 55 hp Schneider engine was barely able to propel the fourteen tons it had to carry. Only had been built by mid, as the project suffered delays, when the production lines stopped and shifted to a supply model.
With the opening of the training school at Beaulieu, the high attrition rate due to insufficient maintenance in adverse conditions was significantly reduced, but inadequate armor and poor placement of fuel tanks contributed to its precipitous withdrawal.
The engagements of brought utter disillusionment, but also a lot of hope about the future of the tank. Since the first offensive actions on the Somme, the German Army had learned how to deal with this new threat and gained the upper hand, while using their artillery or improvising at infantry level.
It was indeed shown that, despite its apparent inefficiency against tank armor, machine-guns could cause spalling, which meant that the poor quality plates fractured into small pieces, similar to shrapnel. These injured the crew and disabled the transmission, engine, or other mechanical parts. Throwing a grenade over the less protected roof was also found quite effective. But the most efficient way to destroy these lumbering targets was light, agile, field artillery.
German gunners quickly learned to destroy tanks while remaining out of reach of direct fire, and artillery observers learned how to anticipate the movement of these vehicles during an artillery barrage. The first French tank battle took place on April, 16, , during the Nivelle Offensive.
It involved most of the Schneiders available , engaged at once at Berry-au-Bac. This was a complete disaster, as the German gunners had already received instructions on how to deal with tanks and were ready for them. For the few that reached a practical firing range most had been lost due to poor maintenance, breakdowns, or just bogged down en route , the German gunners targeted an obvious weak point, the badly-placed front fuel tank.
One by one, all survivors of the muddy lunar-like landscape were blasted away, before even getting into position to cause some damage. This was just a footnote in the immense and futile slaughter of soldiers which was part of these series of massed frontal assaults.
However, they achieved some objectives by May, with the capture of guns, taking of 28, prisoners, and inflicting around , German casualties for some , French casualties.
Despite their poor results, the Schneiders and St. Chamonds 92 in all were once more engaged at the Battle of La Malmaison in October. But the results were similar, and due to the soaked terrain, the attrition rate was even greater.
Few tanks reached the German lines. On the British side, in June and July in Flanders, around tanks were engaged, with mixed results. By November, the British Army led another major offensive with tanks, at the battle of Cambrai. It was the first time the new Mark IV was deployed in such numbers. This tank was improved in every way over its predecessors, including armor able to withstand the German armor-piercing bullets. In total, tanks would be deployed in these offensives, and lost, some of which were later recovered by the Germans, after their successful counter-offensive, using Sturmtruppen.
The territorial gains were real, but they largely involved better coordination between infantry and artillery to succeed. British Colonel J. Fuller, chief of staff of the Tank Corps, had his troops succeed on the battlefield despite a horrendous attrition rate, and tanks indeed helped to secure a breakthrough, although this was later wasted by the complete absence of coordination with infantry.
Some were also engaged in urban combat, to their dismay. First experiences during the early months of had shown how much the Allied tanks were prone to breakdowns, and that they were severely underpowered and vulnerable against gunfire. But they also proved, first thanks to the element of surprise, and thereafter because the Germans were unable to formulate a response, that their concept was sound and they could possibly make the long-awaited breakthroughs.
During the last months of new models were being developed.