Access – VBA – How to write SQL statements in VBA
Access SQL: SELECT clause. Access SQL: FROM clause. Access SQL: WHERE clause. Top of Page. Sorting the results: ORDER BY. Like Microsoft Excel, Access lets you sort query results in a datasheet. You can also specify in the query how you want to sort the results when the query is run, by using an ORDER BY clause. 1. After launching Microsoft Access, either select "more" to open an existing database or click "Blank Database" to create a New database. If you are 2. Once Access opens, Click “Create” from the menu running across the top of the screen. 3. Next, Click the “Query Design” button. 4. You'll see a.
Click here for Access "', "", "" or Access "". After launching Microsoft Access, either select open to open an existing how to relieve tired eyes or select new to create a new database. If you are creating a new database, you must create and save a name for your database. After selecting or creating a database, click Queries on the left, and then click on the "New" button located near the top of the screen.
Select Design View, and click OK. Look at the following image which illustrates steps two and three. You'll see a Show Table dialog box. Click close on this dialog box without selecting any tables. Look at the following image which illustrates step four. Select the View button near the top of the screen. Look at the following image which illustrates step five and six. Look at the following image which illustrates step seven.
To run a command click the "Run" button. Note: The run button is a red explanation mark. After launching Microsoft Access, either select "more" to open an existing database or click "Blank Database" to create a New database.
Note: If you are selecting an existing database i. To run a command, click the "Run" button. Note: When you place your cursor over a button, the name of the button is displayed.
An SQL statement must finish with a semicolon (;). If you omit the semicolon when writing an SQL statement in the SQL view of the Access query design window your query will still work because Access corrects the error for you! You must remember to include it . insert into tblTest (t1) values (''); update tbltest set t1 = '' where id = 5; insert into tblTest (t1,t2,t3) values ('','',''); Note the in the above text file we free to have sql statements on more then one line. the code you can use to read + run the above script is.
SQL is a computer language that closely resembles English, but that database programs understand. Every query that you run uses SQL behind the scenes.
Understanding how SQL works can help you create better queries, and can make it easier for you to understand how to fix a query that is not returning the results that you want. This is one of a set of articles about Access SQL. What is SQL? SQL is a computer language for working with sets of facts and the relationships between them. Unlike many computer languages, SQL is not difficult to read and understand, even for a novice.
You use SQL to describe sets of data that can help you answer questions. When you use SQL, you must use the correct syntax. Syntax is the set of rules by which the elements of a language are correctly combined. For example, a simple SQL statement that retrieves a list of last names for contacts whose first name is Mary might resemble this:.
Note: SQL is not only used for manipulating data, but also for creating and altering the design of database objects, such as tables. This topic does not cover DDL. For more information, see the article Create or modify tables or indexes by using a data-definition query. This includes the following:. Like a sentence, a SQL statement has clauses. Each clause performs a function for the SQL statement.
The following table lists the most common SQL clauses. Each SQL clause is composed of terms — comparable to parts of speech. The following table lists types of SQL terms. A combination of identifiers, operators, constants, and functions that evaluates to a single value.
Top of Page. A SQL statement takes the general form:. Access ignores line breaks in a SQL statement. However, consider using a line for each clause to help improve the readability of your SQL statements for yourself and others.
The semi-colon can appear at the end of the last clause or on a line by itself at the end of the SQL statement. The following illustrates what a SQL statement for a simple select query might look like in Access:.
FROM clause. WHERE clause. This example SQL statement reads "Select the data that is stored in the fields named E-mail Address and Company from the table named Contacts, specifically those records in which the value of the field City is Seattle.
Let's look at the example, one clause at a time, to see how SQL syntax works. If an identifier contains spaces or special characters such as "E-mail Address" , it must be enclosed in square brackets.
A SELECT clause does not have to say which tables contain the fields, and it cannot specify any conditions that must be met by the data to be included. FROM Contacts. This is the FROM clause. A FROM clause does not list the fields to be selected. More information about how you use these clauses is presented in these additional articles:. Like Microsoft Excel, Access lets you sort query results in a datasheet. An ORDER BY clause contains a list of the fields that you want to use for sorting, in the same order that you want to apply the sort operations.
For example, suppose that you want your results sorted first by the value of the field Company in descending order, and — if there are records with the same value for Company — sorted next by the values in the field E-mail Address in ascending order. Note: By default, Access sorts values in ascending order A-Z, smallest to largest. Use the DESC keyword to sort values in descending order instead. Sometimes you want to work with summarized data, such as the total sales in a month, or the most expensive items in an inventory.
For example, if you want your query to show the count of e-mail addresses listed for each company, your SELECT clause might resemble the following:. The aggregate functions that you can use depend on the type of data that is in the field or expression that you want to use. For more information about the available aggregate functions, see the article SQL Aggregate Functions. If you want to use criteria to limit your results, but the field that you want to apply criteria to is used in an aggregate function, you cannot use a WHERE clause.
For example, if you only want the query to return rows if there are more than one e-mail addresses associated with the company, the HAVING clause might resemble the following:. When you want to review all the data that is returned by several similar select queries together, as a combined set, you use the UNION operator. The SELECT statements that you combine must have the same number of output fields, in the same order, and with the same or compatible data types.
When you run the query, data from each set of corresponding fields is combined into one output field, so that the query output has the same number of fields as each of the select statements.
Note: For the purposes of a union query, the Number and Text data types are compatible. When you use the UNION operator, you can also specify whether the query results should include duplicate rows, if any exist, by using the ALL key word. For example, suppose that you have a table named Products and another table named Services.
Both tables have fields that contain the name of the product or service, the price, warranty or guarantee availability, and whether you offer the product or service exclusively. Although the Products table stores warranty information, and the Services table stores guarantee information, the basic information is the same whether a particular product or service includes a promise of quality. You can use a union query, such as the following, to combine the four fields from the two tables:. SQL syntax.
Access SQL: basic concepts, vocabulary, and syntax. Notes: Access ignores line breaks in a SQL statement. A subscription to make the most of your time.
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The more you tell us, the more we can help. How can we improve? Send No thanks. Thank you for your feedback! It sounds like it might be helpful to connect you to one of our Office support agents. Contact Support. Specifies field criteria that must be met by each record to be included in the results. A name that you use to identify a database object, such as the name of a field.