Jazz Origins in New Orleans
Jazz originated in New Orleans in the second half of the 19th century. A port city, New Orleans had people coming in from around the world, socializing, and sharing their music. Music from all over the world could be heard in the streets of New Orleans. New Orleans was also one of the only places in America that permitted slaves to own drums. While rooted in New Orleans, the city’s jazz pioneers traveled extensively for work. This artistic diaspora was accelerated when the city’s official red light district, Storyville, was ordered closed by the federal government in , thus shuttering the saloons and bordellos that had proved such reliable venues for early jazz musicians.
The term "Jazz Fest" also refers to the days surrounding the festival and the many shows at unaffiliated New Orleans nightclubs scheduled during the festival weekends. As the event's popularity grew, the festival expanded to include nationally known acts. And of course there is lots of jazzboth contemporary and traditional.
The Festival also features a wide variety of vendors selling local foods and crafts. All food vendors go through a strict screening process to ensure quality and sanitary food handling practices.
In addition, most foods are made with fresh, local ingredients and are prepared by hand. All food vendors are small, locally owned businesses. There are craft booths throughout the grounds. The Congo Square African Marketplace contains pieces from local, national, and international artisans and has the atmosphere of a true marketplace. Many of the artisans utilize ancient crafting techniques.
In the Contemporary Crafts area, one can find handmade clothing, leather goods, jewelry, paintings, sculptures, and musical instruments. Visitors can also watch demonstrations of metal, painting, pottery, and fiber works.
Lastly, the Louisiana Marketplace contains baskets, hand-colored photographs, jewelry, and landscape-themed art. One unique aspect of the Festival is the allocation of large areas for dedication to cultural and historical practices unique to Louisiana.
Some of the areas include the Louisiana Folklife Village, which focuses on state art and culture, the Native American Village, and the Grandstand. Many of the folk demonstrators have been recognized by the National Endowment of the Arts for their work. In addition, parades are held throughout the duration of the event. They include parades by the Mardi Gras Indians, marching bands, brass bands, and social aid and pleasure clubs.
George Wein 's Festival Productions was contracted to produce the Festival. Both Miner and Davis knew a great deal about jazz. They went to black clubs to hire performers rather than to Bourbon Street or other tourist destinations because it was at these clubs that live music was being produced. The first person the pair booked was Snooks Eaglina street singer who performed at the festival every year.
AEG Live became a co-producer of the festival in The Archive contains recordings from musicians interviewed at the festival, as how to send money on western union online as other documents, photographs, and ephemera related to the Festival and the Foundation's holdings, including early WWOZ It contains business records, photographs, video and audio recordings, as well as other artifacts.
The Archive is open to the public by appointment. After Hurricane Katrina, the stage was temporarily merged with the Lagniappe Stage, which is housed in the Grandstand. However, init was reinstated as a full stage. The venue is located at Gentilly Boulevard, approximately ten minutes from the French Quarter.
Musicians were housed in Davis' and Miner's homes; there was no money for hotels. The first Jazz Fest lineup included Mahalia Jackson who was not booked, but simply heard about the Festival and showed up to sing the Preservation Hall Jazz BandDuke EllingtonPete Fountain, Al HirtClifton ChenierFats Dominoand The Meters This first lineup received an audience of people, but the numbers grew every year, especially after the introduction of a limited edition silkscreen poster series in By the end of the s, attendance peaked atInwhen Louis Armstrong's centennial was celebrated,people attended.
The first poster was designed by Sharon Dinkins and Thorn Grafton. Posters feature a performer or the overall theme of the Festival, and all posters are commissioned by the Festival. Inthe Festival added the Congo Square poster series.
Osborne designed the poster how to wire a 220v heater as well as the and posterswhich featured Trombone Shorty. It how to download music to windows movie maker announced on 16 April that the edition would be jazz began in what area of new orleans because of the ongoing COVID pandemic ; the 51st is deferred to October In addition, the Board is split into various committees.
Board members serve three year terms, though there is no limit placed on the number of terms. Elections are held annually. Advisory Council members may only serve for two consecutive three year terms, however.
Governance does not change much from year to year. Board members are not officially compensated, but they are given perks such as dozens of free tickets. The festival has featured a variety of musicians and performers every year since its founding, ranging from Louisiana musicians to international pop stars. Many popular New Orleans musicians have played annually for long stretches over the history of the festival such as the Neville BrothersDr.
JohnEllis Marsalis, and The Radiators. Applications to perform from the general public are limited to bands from Louisiana to promote and preserve local culture. There are 12 music stages and tents of various sizes, as well as two food stages, set up at the Festival. The following are the stages forand they are listed roughly in the order of capacity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other jazz festivals, see List of jazz festivals.
Annual music festival. Academic Search Premier. March 24, March 23, Retrieved Dissertations and Theses. University of New Orleans Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing, American Scholar City of New Orleans. Orleans Parish New Orleans metropolitan area Louisiana. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Commons link from Wikidata.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.
Wikimedia Commons. New OrleansLouisiana, U.
Book Your Trip
Jul 15, · “New Orleans style,” or Dixieland Jazz was incredibly popular through the s, but the s saw a new musical movement appear on the scene: swing. Many of the jazz musicians merged into larger combos, eventually creating the big bands of the late s and usloveescort.com: Edward Branley.
Researchers and historians are still learning about jazz history; there are many and various opinions about what is important in the history of jazz. What follows is an overview of jazz history that provides a foundation for this study. A review of New Orleans' unique history and culture, with its distinctive character rooted in the colonial period, is helpful in understanding the complex circumstances that led to the development of New Orleans jazz. The city was founded in as part of the French Louisiana colony.
The Louisiana territories were ceded to Spain in but were returned to France in France almost immediately sold the colony to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. New Orleans differed greatly from the rest of the young United States in its Old World cultural relationships.
A more liberal outlook on life prevailed, with an appreciation of good food, wine, music, and dancing. Festivals were frequent, and Governor William Claiborne, the first American-appointed governor of the territory of Louisiana, reportedly commented that New Orleanians were ungovernable because of their preoccupation with dancing. The colony's culture was enriched not only from Europe but from Africa as well. Many arrived via the Caribbean and brought with them West Indian cultural traditions.
Partially because of the cultural friction, these newcomers began settling upriver from Canal Street and from the already full French Quarter Vieux Carre. These settlements extended the city boundaries and created the "uptown" American sector as a district apart from the older Creole "downtown.
Ethnic diversity increased further during the 19th century. Many German and Irish immigrants came before the Civil War, and the number of Italian immigrants increased afterward. The concentration of new European immigrants in New Orleans was unique in the South.
This rich mix of cultures in New Orleans resulted in considerable cultural exchange. An early example was the city's relatively large and free "Creole of color" community.
Creoles of color were people of mixed African and European blood and were often well educated craft and trades people. Creole of color musicians were particularly known for their skill and discipline.
Many were educated in France and played in the best orchestras in the city. In the city, people of different cultures and races often lived close together in spite of conventional prejudices , which facilitated cultural interaction.
For instance, wealthier families occupied the new spacious avenues and boulevards uptown, such as St. Charles and Napoleon avenues, while poorer families of all races who served those who were better off often lived on the smaller streets in the centers of the larger blocks. New Orleans did not have mono cultural ghettos like many other cities. New Orleans' unusual history, its unique outlook on life, its rich ethnic and cultural makeup, and the resulting cultural interaction set the stage for development and evolution of many distinctive traditions.
The city is famous for its festivals, foods, and, especially, its music. Each ethnic group in New Orleans contributed to the very active musical environment in the city, and in this way to the development of early jazz. A well-known example of early ethnic influences significant to the origins of jazz is the African dance and drumming tradition, which was documented in New Orleans.
By the midth century, slaves gathered socially on Sundays at a special market outside the city's rampart. Later, the area became known as Congo Square, famous for its African dances and the preservation of African musical and cultural elements. Although dance in Congo Square ended before the Civil War, a related musical tradition surfaced in the African-American neighborhoods at least by the s.
On Mardi Gras day gang members roamed their neighborhoods looking to confront other gangs in a show of strength that sometimes turned violent.
The demonstration included drumming and call-and-response chanting that was strongly reminiscent of West African and Caribbean music. Mardi Gras Indian music was part of the environment of early jazz. Several early jazz figures such as Louis Armstrong and Lee Collins described being affected by Mardi Gras Indian processions as youngsters, and Jelly Roll Morton claimed to have been a "spyboy," or scout, for an Indian gang as a teenager. New Orleans music was also impacted by the popular musical forms that proliferated throughout the United States following the Civil War.
Brass marching bands were the rage in the late s, and brass bands cropped up across America. There was also a growing national interest in syncopated musical styles influenced by African-American traditions, such as cakewalks and minstrel tunes.
By the s syncopated piano compositions called ragtime created a popular music sensation, and brass bands began supplementing the standard march repertoire with ragtime pieces. Brass bands had become enormously popular in New Orleans as well as the rest of the country. In the s New Orleans brass bands, such as the Excelsior and Onward, typically consisted of formally trained musicians reading complex scores for concerts, parades, and dances.
The roots of jazz were largely nourished in the African-American community but became a broader phenomenon that drew from many communities and ethnic groups in New Orleans. Laine's bands, which were active around to , became the most well known of the white ragtime bands. Laine was a promoter of the first generation of white jazzmen. A special collaborative relationship developed between brass bands in New Orleans and mutual aid and benevolent societies. Mutual aid and benevolent societies were common among many ethnic groups in urban areas in the 19th century.
After the Civil War such organizations took on special meaning for emancipated African-Americans who had limited economic resources. The purposes of such societies were to "help the sick and bury the dead" - important functions because blacks were generally prohibited from getting commercial health and life insurance and other services.
While many organizations in New Orleans used brass bands in parades, concerts, political rallies, and funerals, African-American mutual aid and benevolent societies had their own expressive approach to funeral processions and parades, which continues to the present. At their events, community celebrants would join in the exuberant dancing procession. The phenomena of community participation in parades became known as "the second line," second, that is, to the official society members and their contracted band.
Other community organizations also used New Orleans-style "ragtime" brass bands. Mardi Gras walking clubs, notably the Jefferson City Buzzards and the Cornet Carnival Club still in existence , were employers of the music. By the turn of the century New Orleans was thriving not only as a major sea and river port but also as a major entertainment center.
Legitimate theater, vaudeville, and music publishing houses and instrument stores employed musicians in the central business district. Less legitimate entertainment establishments flourished in and around the officially sanctioned red-light district near Canal and Rampart streets. Out on the shores of Lake Ponchartrain bands competed for audiences at amusement parks and resorts. Street parades were common in the neighborhood, and community social halls and corner saloons held dances almost nightly.
New Orleanians never lost their penchant for dancing, and most of the city's brass band members doubled as dance band players. Dance bands and orchestras softened the brass sound with stringed instruments, including violin, guitar, and string bass. At the turn of the century string dance bands were popular in more polite settings, and "dirty" music, as the more genteel dances were known, was the staple of many downtown Creole of color bands such as John Robichaux's Orchestra.
But earthier vernacular dance styles were also increasing in popularity in New Orleans. Over the last decade of the 19th century, non reading musicians playing more improvised music drew larger audiences for dances and parades. For example, between and uptown cornet player Charles "Buddy" Bolden began incorporating improvised blues and increasing the tempo of familiar dance tunes.
Bolden was credited by many early jazzmen as the first musician to have a distinctive new style. The increasing popularity of this more "ratty" music brought many trained and untrained musicians into the improvising bands.
Also, repressive segregation laws passed in the s as a backlash to Reconstruction increased discrimination toward anyone with African blood and eliminated the special status previously afforded Creoles of color. These changes ultimately united black and Creole of color musicians, thus strengthening early jazz by combing the uptown improvisational style with the more disciplined Creole approach.
The instrumentation and section playing of the brass bands increasingly influenced the dance bands, which changed in orientation from string to brass instruments. What ultimately became the standard front line of a New Orleans jazz band was cornet, clarinet, and trombone.
These horns collectively improvising or "faking" ragtime yielded the characteristic polyphonic sound of New Orleans jazz.
Most New Orleans events were accompanied by music, and there were many opportunities for musicians to work. In addition to parades and dances, bands played at picnics, fish fries, political rallies, store openings, lawn parties, athletic events, church festivals, weddings, and funerals.
Neighborhood social halls, some operated by mutual aid and benevolent societies or other civic organizations, were frequently the sites of banquets and dances. Early jazz was found in neighborhoods all over and around New Orleans - it was a normal part of community life. Sometime before , African-American neighborhood organizations known as social aid and pleasure clubs also began to spring up in the city.
Similar in their neighborhood orientation to the mutual aid and benevolent societies, the purposes of social and pleasure clubs were to provide a social outlet for its members, provide community service, and parade as an expression of community pride. This parading provided dependable work for musicians and became an important training ground for young musical talent.
New Orleans jazz began to spread to other cities as the city's musicians joined riverboat bands and vaudeville, minstrel, and other show tours.
Jelly Roll Morton, an innovative piano stylist and composer, began his odyssey outside of New Orleans as early as In the Original Dixieland Jazz Band cut the first commercial jazz recording while playing in New York City, where they were enthusiastically received.
The Victor release was an unexpected hit. Suddenly, jazz New Orleans style was a national craze. With the new demand for jazz, employment opportunities in the north coaxed more musicians to leave New Orleans. For example, clarinetist Sidney Bechet left for Chicago in , and cornetist Joe "King" Oliver followed two years later. The appeal of the New Orleans sound knew no boundaries. Perhaps the most significant departure from New Orleans was in when Louis Armstrong was summoned to Chicago by King Oliver, his mentor.
Louis Armstrong swung with a great New Orleans feeling, but unlike any of his predecessors, his brilliant playing led a revolution in jazz that replaced the polyphonic ensemble style of New Orleans with development of the soloist's art.
The technical improvement and popularity of phonograph records spread Armstrong's instrumental and vocal innovations and make him internationally famous. His Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings , including his celebrated work with Earl Hines, were quite popular and are milestones in the progression of the music. Jelly Roll Morton, another New Orleans giant, also made a series of influential recordings while based in Chicago in the s.
Morton's compositions added sophistication and a structure for soloists to explore, and his work set the stage for the Swing era. New Orleans musicians and musical styles continued to influence jazz nationally as the music went through a rapid series of stylistic changes. Jazz became the unchallenged popular music of America during the Swing era of the s and s. Later innovations, such as bebop in the s and avant-garde in the s, departed further from the New Orleans tradition.
Once the small-band New Orleans style fell out of fashion, attempts were made to revive the music. In the late s, recognizing that early jazz had been neglected and deserved serious study, jazz enthusiasts turned back to New Orleans. Many New Orleans musicians and others were still actively playing traditional jazz.