Earth sciences, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth, its waters, and the air that envelops it. Included are the geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric sciences. The broad aim of the Earth sciences is to understand Earth’s present features and its past evolution. Basic Concepts of Earth Science - Chapter Summary. This chapter is designed to ease the process of getting reacquainted with basic concepts of earth science.
Earth sciencesthe fields of study concerned with the solid Earthits waters, and the air that envelops it. Eaeth are the geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric sciences. Earth sciences are the fields of study concerned with the solid Earthits watersand the air that envelops it. Earth scientists observe, describe, and classify all how to use dvd decryptor of Earth to generate hypotheses with which to explain their presence and their development.
Earth sciences study largely inaccessible objects: many rockswater bodies, and oil reservoirs are at great depths in the Earth, while air masses circulate high above it. Also required is an understanding of timeas Earth scientists consider how Earth evolved, examining such matters as the physical and chemical conditions operating on Earth and on the Moon billions of years ago and the evolution of the oceansthe atmosphereand life itself.
There are six groups of Earth science topics. The broad aim of the Earth sciences is to understand the present features and the past evolution of Earth and to use this knowledge, where appropriate, for the benefit of humankind.
Thus, the basic concerns how to configure gmail in outlook 2007 using imap the Earth scientist are darth observe, describe, and classify all the features of the Earth, whether characteristic or not, to generate hypotheses with which to explain their presence and their development, and to devise means of checking opposing ideas for their relative validity.
In this way the most plausible, acceptable, and long-lasting ideas are developed. The physical environment in which humans live includes not only the immediate surface of the solid Earth but also the ground beneath it and the water and air above it. Early humans were more how to establish a new university with the mak of life than with theories, and, thus, their survival depended on their ability to obtain metals from the ground to produce, for example, alloys, such as bronze from copper and tin, for tools and armour, to find adequate water supplies for establishing dwelling sites, and to forecast the weatherwhich had a far greater bearing on human life in earlier times than it has today.
Such situations represent the foundations of the three principal component disciplines of the modern Earth sciences. The rapid development of science as a whole over the past century and a half has given rise to an immense number of specializations and subdisciplines, with the result that the modern Earth scientist, perhaps unfortunately, tends to know a great deal about a very small area of study but only a little about most other aspects of the entire field.
It is therefore very important for the layperson and the researcher alike to be aware of the complex interlinking network of disciplines that make up the Earth sciences today, and that is the purpose of this article. Only when one is aware of the marvelous complexity of the Earth sciences and yet can understand the breakdown of the component disciplines is one in a position to select those parts how to insert an image in photoshop the subject that are of greatest personal interest.
It is worth emphasizing two important features that the three divisions of the Earth sciences have in common. First is the inaccessibility of many of the objects of study. Many rocks, as well as water and oil reservoirs, are at great depths in the Earth, while air masses circulate at vast heights above it.
Thus, the Earth scientist has to have a good three-dimensional perspective. Second, there is the fourth dimension: time.
The Earth scientist is responsible for working out how the Earth evolved over millions of years. For example, What were the physical and chemical conditions operating on the Earth and the Moon 3. How did the oceans form, and how did wuat chemical composition change with time?
How eadth the atmosphere developed? And finally, How did life on Earth begin? Today the Earth sciences are divided into many disciplines, which are themselves divisible into conxepts groups:. With such intergradational boundaries between the divisions of the Earth sciences which, on a broader scale, also intergrade with physicschemistry, biologymathematicsand certain branches of engineeringresearchers today must be versatile in their approach to problems.
Hence, an important aspect of training within the Earth sciences is an appreciation of their multidisciplinary nature. Earth sciences. Additional Info. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Those subjects that deal with the water and air at or above the solid surface of the Earth. In this article such fields of study are grouped under the hydrologic and atmospheric sciences and are treated separately from the geologic sciences, which focus on the solid Earth.
The study of landforms geomorphologywhich is concerned with the description of the features of the thw terrestrial surface and an analysis of the processes that gave rise to them. Disciplines concerned with sxience geologic history of the Earth, including the study of fossils and the fossil record paleontologythe development of sedimentary strata deposited typically over millions of years stratigraphyand the isotopic chemistry and age dating of rocks geochronology.
Applied Earth sciences dealing with current practical applications beneficial to society. These include the study of fossil fuels oil, natural gasand coal ; oil reservoirs; mineral deposits; geothermal energy for electricity and concepst the structure and composition of bedrock for the location of bridges, nuclear reactors, roads, dams, and skyscrapers and other buildings; hazards involving rock and mud avalanches, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and the collapse of tunnels; and coastal, cliffand soil erosion.
The study of the rock record on the Moon and the planets and their satellites astrogeology. This field includes the investigation of relevant terrestrial features—namely, tektites glassy objects resulting from meteorite impacts and what mp3 players work with itunes meteorite craters.
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Click here ?? to get an answer to your question ? What are the main concepts that make up the study of earth science? Ghoneey Ghoneey What are the main concepts that make up the study of earth science? 1 See answer Ghoneey is waiting for your help. Add your answer and earn points. The Four Earth Sciences. Many different sciences are used to learn about the Earth; however, the four basic areas of Earth science study are: geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy. A brief explanation of these sciences is provided below. Earth Scientists Study the Subsurface. Four Main Branches of Earth Science. Earth science is the study of the Earth and it's atmosphere. Within this area of science there are four branches that focus on specific areas of Earth science.
Earth science is made of many branches of knowledge concerning all aspects of the Earth system. The main branches are geology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, and environmental science.
Astronomy uses principles understood from Earth to learn about the solar system, galaxy, and universe. Only recently have humans begun to understand the complexity of our planet Earth. We have only known for a few hundred years that Earth is just a tiny part of an enormous galaxy, which in turn is a tiny part of an even greater universe. Earth science deals with any and all aspects of the Earth: its lands, interior, atmosphere, and oceans.
In all its wonder, Earth scientists seek to understand the beautiful sphere on which we live, shown in Figure below. Earth is a very large, complex system or set of systems, so most Earth scientists specialize in studying one aspect of the planet. Since all of the branches of Earth science are connected, these researchers work together to answer complicated questions.
The major branches of Earth science are described below. Some ideas geologists might consider include how rocks and landforms are created or the composition of rocks, minerals, or various landforms. Geologists consider how natural processes create and destroy materials on Earth, and how humans can use Earth materials as resources, among other topics. Geology has many branches, only a few of which are described in Figure below. As you learn about each branch of geology, think of an interesting question that you might like to try to answer.
Lunar geologists study the Moon. They monitor earthquakes worldwide to protect people and property. The study of water and its movements, distribution and quality is hydrology.
Oceanography is more than just the hydrology of the oceans. Recent technology has allowed people and probes to venture to the deepest parts of the ocean, but still much of the ocean remains unexplored.
Marine geologists learn about the rocks and geologic processes of the ocean basins. Marine biologists study life in the oceans. Meteorology includes the study of weather patterns, clouds, hurricanes, and tornadoes. Using modern technology such as radars and satellites, meteorologists are getting more accurate at forecasting the weather all the time Figure below. Climatologists study the whole atmosphere, taking a long-range view.
Climatologists can help us better understand how and why climate changes Figure below. Environmental scientists study the effects people have on their environment, including the landscape, atmosphere, water, and living things Figure below. Astronomers are interested in outer space and the physical bodies beyond the Earth.
They use telescopes to see things far beyond what the human eye can see. Astronomers help to design spacecraft that travel into space and send back information about faraway places or satellites Figure below.
Skip to main content. What is Earth Science? Search for:. Identify the field of geology as a branch of Earth science dealing with the solid Earth. Describe oceanography as a branch of Earth science that has several subdivisions that deal with the various aspects of the ocean.
Define meteorology as a branch of Earth science that deals with the atmosphere. Understand that astronomy is an extension of Earth science that examines other parts of the solar system and universe. List some of the other branches of Earth science, and how they relate to the study of the Earth. Introduction Earth science is made of many branches of knowledge concerning all aspects of the Earth system.
Overview of Earth Science Only recently have humans begun to understand the complexity of our planet Earth. Earth as seen from Apollo Physical oceanographers study the movements of ocean water such as currents, waves, and tides. Meteorologists forecast major storms to save lives and property. Carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere is causing the global climate to change.
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