The Second Great Awakening
The causes of the Second Great Awakening included the social disruptions of the Market Revolution, the democratization of American culture, and a sincere belief among many religious leaders that. During the Second Great Awakening revivalistic theology in many denominations shifted from Calvinism to a practical Arminianism as preachers emphasized the ability of sinners to make an immediate decision for their salvation; theological differences almost disappeared among evangelical churches. Moreover, under Finney’s aegis a rationale for carefully contrived revival techniques evolved.
To understand what the Second Great Awakening was, we need to go back to earlier revivals and the current social environment of the 's. During the first half of the 's, the population of the United States grew greah five to thirty million, and the boundary of the nation moved ever westward. Revivals became the primary means of Christianizing the growing and expanding population. These revivals at the beginning of what is the maximum unemployment benefit in nj nineteenth century became known as the Second Great Awakening.
On the American frontier, camp meetings came to characterize revivals. The first camp meeting revival was in south-central Kentucky. At a meeting in JunePresbyterian James McGready and two other pastors preached for 3 days; on the shat day, two traveling Methodist ministers officiated and concluded with an emotional exhortation. Many physically collapsed at what they called conviction of sin. People were convinced they were experiencing a visitation of the Holy Spirit such as the early church had seclnd at Pentecost.
Another meeting was called for July at the Gasper River Church to wait "for the Spirit to descend again. When a great wave of emotional conversions occurred, the people were convinced this was of God.
In AugustBarton W. Stone led a revival in Cane RidgeKentucky that became the most famous camp meeting. The meeting lasted a week, and 23, people came. The preaching was simple, lively, and persuasive, with preachers from different denominations sharing the platform. The common people were deeply affected, and, as at the Gasper River meeting, strong emotional responses were considered proofs of conversion.
Often these produced strange physical manifestations - some people fainted and fell to the ground were "slain in the spirit" or suffered uncontrollable shaking "the jerks". There was dancing, running and singing - all of which Stone said were manifestations of God's presence.
The noise of the meetings was so great that some said: "the noise was like the roar of Niagara. The revivals in the east were much more subdued than those on the frontier; many of the eastern revivalists were highly critical of the emotional excesses of the Cane Ridge camp meeting. One Presbyterian minister said the anarchy of the camp meetings must have had some connections with the French Revolution!
Christianity was almost nonexistent then at Yale, the campus church almost extinct. For four years Dwight preached a series of weekly sermons on Christian belief; when he finished the series, he started over again.
Finally, inafter seven years of preaching, revival came to Yale. At least half of swcond student body was converted to Christianity under Dwight's Presidency. One college tutor wrote home to his mom, "Yale College is a little temple; prayer and praise seem to be the delight of the greater part of the awakenig while those who are still unfeeling are awed with respectful silence.
The Second Great Awakening had a tremendous effect on American society by spawning a large number of social reform movements. A great geeat of such reforms was the evangelist Charles G. Finney was to bring in new methods and a new attitude towards revival. Jonathan Edwards had viewed the revival in Northampton as "a very extraordinary dispensation of Providence" a "surprising work of God. It is a purely philosophic [i. These included the inquiry room for counseling seekers, the anxious or mourners' bench for those responding to the public invitation to Christpreaching for an immediate decision, emotional prayers which addressed God in a very familiar, informal language, organized choirs and music, advertising and advanced preparation for the revival meeting.
Finney believed that revival was not something sent down by God, but it could be brought about if the right means were used. A man was free to choose his spiritual destiny. Finney pressed for decisions. He was the first to have an "invitation" calling people how to do liberty spikes the front to make a public witness of their conversion. Finney believed the gospel did not just get people saved, but it what caused the second great awakening also a means of cleaning up society.
He and his followers worked to make the United States a Christian nation. Finney himself was a strong abolitionist and encouraged Christians to seconx involved in the antislavery movement.
Christians became the leaders in many other social concerns such as education, prison reform, temperance, Sabbath observance, and women's rights. The large how to set up for xbox live of Christian workers for social reform became so influential they and the organizations they founded became known as the Benevolent Empire.
The Second Great Awakening had a greater effect on society than adakening other revival in America. What caused the second great awakening this. The Second Great Awakening. Diane Severance, Ph. What was the Second Great Awakening? Today on Christianity. What Is the Significance of Biblical Numerology? About Christianity. All rights reserved.
Theology And The Second Great Awakening
Dec 10, · The Second Great Awakening (–) was a time of evangelical fervor and revival in the newly formed nation of America. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution. Oct 03, · The Second Great Awakening commenced in the late 18 th century, gained momentum in the early 19 th century, and was at its peak in the middle of the 19 th century. The driving force was the personal piety over theology and schooling. The awakening rejected deism of the Enlightenment and skeptical rationalism. Sep 20, · The Great Awakening came to an end sometime during the s. In the s, another religious revival, which became known as the Second Great .
The Second Great Awakening — was a time of evangelical fervor and revival in the newly formed nation of America. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution.
As such, America arose as a religious nation as observed by Alexis de Tocqueville and others. Part and parcel with these strong beliefs came a fear of secularism. This fear of secularism had arisen during the Enlightenment , which resulted in the First Great Awakening — The ideas of social equality that came about with the advent of the new nation trickled down to religion, and the movement to be known as the Second Great Awakening began about Specifically, Methodists and Baptists began an effort to democratize religion.
Unlike the Episcopalian religion, ministers in these sects were typically uneducated. Unlike the Calvinists, they believed and preached in salvation for all. At the beginning of the Second Great Awakening, preachers brought their message to the people with great fanfare and excitement in the form of a traveling revival. The earliest of the tent revivals focused on the Appalachian frontier, but they quickly moved into the area of the original colonies. These revivals were social events where faith was renewed.
The Baptists and Methodists often worked together in these revivals. Both religions believed in free will with personal redemption. The Baptists were highly decentralized with no hierarchical structure in place and preachers lived and worked among their congregation.
The Methodists, on the other hand, had more of an internal structure in place. Individual preachers like the Methodist bishop Francis Asbury — and the "Backwoods Preacher" Peter Cartwright — would travel the frontier on horseback converting people to the Methodist faith.
They were quite successful and by the s the Methodists were the largest Protestant group in America. Revival meetings were not restricted to the frontier or to white people.
In many areas, particularly the south, Blacks held separate revivals at the same time with the two groups joining together on the last day. The revival meetings were not small affairs. Thousands would meet in camp meetings, and many times the event turned quite chaotic with impromptu singing or shouting, individuals speaking in tongues, and dancing in the aisles.
The height of the Second Great Awakening came in the s. There was a great increase in churches across the nation, particularly across New England. So much excitement and intensity accompanied evangelical revivals that in upper New York and Canada, areas were titled "Burned-Over Districts"—where spiritual fervor was so high it seemed to set the places on fire. The most significant revivalist in this area was the Presbyterian minister Charles Grandison Finney — who was ordained in One key change he made was in promoting mass conversions during revival meetings.
No longer were individuals converting alone. Instead, they were joined by neighbors, converting en masse. In , Finney preached in Rochester and made an estimated , converts. One significant byproduct of the revival furor in the Burned-Over Districts was the founding of Mormonism.
Joseph Smith — lived in upstate New York when he received visions in A few years later, he reported the discovery of the Book of Mormon, which he said was a lost section of the Bible. He soon founded his own church and began converting people to his faith. Soon persecuted for their beliefs, the group left New York moving first to Ohio, then Missouri, and finally Nauvoo, Illinois, where they lived for five years.
At that time, an anti-Mormon lynch mob found and killed Joseph and his brother Hyrum Smith — Share Flipboard Email. Martin Kelly. History Expert. Martin Kelly, M. Updated December 10, It pushed the idea of individual salvation and free will over predestination. It greatly increased the number of Christians both in New England and on the frontier.
Revivals and public conversions became social events that continue to this day. The African Methodist Church was founded in Philadelphia. Mormonism was founded and led to the faith's settlement in Salt Lake City, Utah.
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