12 rows · Oct 18, · A urine drug screen can detect a range of drugs. These include: alcohol; amphetamines; Author: Beth Sissons. Mar 11, · A typical urine drug test for employment purposes screens for drugs including amphetamines, cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamines, opiates, nicotine, and alcohol. Urine tests may be required as part of pre-employment screening or may be conducted randomly by employers, especially for employees in certain occupations.
It can be worrisome to a medical marijuana user when it comes to employment. Failing a pre-employment drug screening may not be an immediate no-hire, but there are some caveats.
Here, we will go over what these pre-employment drug screening tests are looking for, the reason employers give them, state laws pertaining to druy marijuana, the rules relating to employers, and if you can expect to get the gor if you test positive. According to Healthlinein a urine screening, the drugs the company is testing for the presence of are:. Whether a urine drug test, saliva test, blood test, or even a hair sample, an employer may want to conduct a pre-employment drug screen for many reasons.
Often, companies drkg policies against drug use for health and safety reasons, as well as legal liabilities. The number one what is apr drg grouper is safety, and the employer wanting to be scrdens that everyone is protected at all times. For this reason, in jobs that require the use of machinery or the operation of vehicles, drug tests are almost always mandatory — both pre-employment and regularly during employment.
Some states actually allow employers to prohibit medical marijuana use. Other states consider it discrimination. It is forbidden to not hire someone in these states due to their marijuana use when they have a qualifying condition and have obtained a medical marijuana card. Marijuana laws change rapidly in the United States.
The constant updates are due mainly to the increasing research on medical benefits. In some states, marijuana, even for medical use, is entirely illegal. As of Novemberthese states are:.
However, in North Carolina and Nebraska, while marijuana is illegal, it is decri m inalized. It means the state has specific possession amounts that are treated as a non-criminal. These states and territories include:. The physician will determine eligibility and help you to obtain a special card through the state. These include New York and Floridaamong many others. They may decide to do pre-employment drug screening no matter what, as it is not forbidden.
Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Minnesota, Scresns, and Rhode Island even go as far as what are the side effects of diazepam 5mg say that a positive drug test is not indicative of impairment.
In New York City, laws were recently passed that legally ban an employer from denying a job applicant work based solely on dp failed marijuana drug screening.
Washington, DC has also recently approved protection for cannabis users in the workplace. And San Francisco has had protection since against job discrimination for marijuana positivity. Above all, it is not illegal for your employer to give you pre-employment drug screening. Remember, marijuana is not the only drug or chemical the test is screening for. However, it is unlawful in the states mentioned above for your employer to discriminate against you for marijuana presence.
Keep in mind; in the states where marijuana is not legal for recreational use, they may require a valid medical marijuana card for this protection to apply. There are always several other caveats. For one, marijuana is still federally classed as an illegal substance. So if a federally-controlled company were to give you a pre-employment drug screening, whether you have a medical marijuana card or not will likely mean nothing.
Whta are much more likely to be declined a job in this case. For positions that require the use of heavy machinery, vehicles, or it would otherwise be a considerable safety hazard to have anything that can impair you in your system, testing negative may still be a requirement, and in these cases, you are not likely to be hired.
You can find a dropdown of states with all relevant information pertaining to laws here. All rights reserved. He has how to convert decimal to bcd 25 years of experience in the healthcare field working at the executive management level and as a medical professional. Get started quickly and easily by answering a few questions now. Subscribe to our blog!
Get the latest valuable news and information on medical marijuana and what do drug screens test for, much more.
How It Works Medical Conditions. Florida New York. Do I Qualify? According to Healthlinein a urine screening, the drugs the company is testing for the presence of are: amphetamines methamphetamines benzodiazepines barbiturates marijuana cocaine PCP methadone opioids narcotics In some screenings, they also test for alcohol presence. Related Posts.
What is it used for?
Apr 18, · A drug test looks for the presence of one or more illegal or prescription drugs in your urine, blood, saliva, hair, or sweat. Urine testing is the most common type of drug screening. The drugs most often tested for include. Feb 14, · The panel drug test screens for the five of the most frequently misused prescription drugs in the United States. It also tests for five . Sep 11, · The standard panel drug test uses a person’s urine to check for drug residues. A panel drug test will look for 10 of the most common drugs that a person may be abusing. This selection usually.
Last updated on Sep 5, Facts Types of tests Workplace testing Drug detection times How long to get results? False positives More resources. Drug testing is the evaluation of urine, blood or another type of biological sample to determine if the subject has been using the drug or drugs in question. There are many circumstances that may require drug testing:. Drug testing is often done when applying for employment, especially for positions that may involve federal transportation, airline industries and pilots, bus drivers, trucker drivers, railways, hospitals, and other workplaces where public safety is of the utmost importance.
However, workplace drug testing is now common in general for many U. Prescription drug abuse is a serious problem in the U. Costs are related to crime, lost work productivity and health care.
The rate of positive pre-employment workforce drug screens in the general U. A pre-employment drug test is primarily limited to drugs with the potential for abuse, including some prescription drugs, and alcohol. In addition, sports drug testing may be required for college-level, professional and Olympic athletes. Illegal recreational drugs, performance-enhancing drugs such as. Pre-employment workplace drug testing usually requires the applicant to give a urine sample, but may also infrequently require blood, saliva, sweat, or hair.
In certain jobs, especially those that require a high level of safety, employees may be subject to random drug testing, as well. Random drug screening may be used in instances of workplace accidents, and if the employer has suspicion that the employee is abusing drugs.
Random drug testing may occur without cause for suspicion depending upon company policy. States may have laws regarding random drug testing.
Some U. It is important to be sure that the drug testing occurs at a reputable and certified laboratory. Any credible drug screening program will involve a two-step process.
The immunoassay is performed first and is often used as a screening method. If the immunoassay is negative, no further action is required, and the results are reported as negative.
If the sample is non-negative, an additional confirmatory GC-MS analysis is performed on a separate portion the biological sample. Confirmatory tests, such as GC-MS should be utilized prior to reporting positive drug test results to employers. Urine is the most common sample type used for drug testing by employers. A urinalysis will show the presence of a drug in the system after the drug effects have worn off; however, the length of time varies by drug.
Urine is the only sample type approved for testing of the federally mandated, safety-sensitive workforce. Typical urine drug tests for employment purposes usually screen for 5 to 10 drugs.
Urine screening may detect amphetamines or methamphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, marijuana, MDA-analogues MDA or MDMA , opiates codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine [indicative of heroin use], hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, oxycodone , nicotine, or alcohol. After urine drug screening, oral fluid saliva testing is the most common method to test for drug use. It may be referred to as a mouth swab test, and used if an employer or other tester is interested in knowing about recent drug use.
It is not ideal to survey long-term use of drugs. Most saliva drug tests can detect usage within a few hours up to 2 days.
The donor should avoid any food or beverages for at least 10 minutes prior to the sample being collected. Saliva is an easy lab test to gather samples, is less susceptible to adulteration or substitution, and can be tested for alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, ecstasy, marijuana THC , opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine PCP , and methamphetamines. It is suitable for all testing reasons, including pre-employment testing, random and post-accident testing.
A blood drug test may be used to determine amounts of drug in an employees system at that very moment, usually from minutes to hours. It allows an employer or law enforcement official to determine if a person is actively under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
A variety of drugs can be tested for in blood: examples include alcoho, amphetamines, cocaine, fentanyl, marijuana, methamphetamines, opiates, phencyclidine, nicotine, and tramadol. Blood testing is invasive, requiring a needle stick, but there is little chance for adulteration. Blood testing may be performed in the emergency room for toxicology testing, as well.
However, blood analysis often has a short period of detection, as many illicit drugs are metabolized quickly and eliminated from the body. Drugs in urine can usually be detected in a one to three day time period. Hair testing may be used to determine drug use over the longer term, usually over a day period of time. Hair can be tested for cocaine, marijuana and THC, cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and methamphetamine, ecstasy, phencyclidine, and alcohol.
In general, hair testing allows the longest time frame to detect drugs of abuse. The collector usually takes a gram sample of hair to strands cut close to the scalp. This method lessens the risk for hair adulteration or substitution, as the sample is collected in full view of the lab personnel. Rapid screening can allow detection of drugs that might metabolize quickly and not be detectable at a later screening.
Screening for most drugs of abuse and alcohol can be performed. Rapid tests can be performed at an employers workplace or at a local, specified laboratory clinic.
A breath alcohol confirmation may be required for a positive screen for alcohol with the instant test.
Rapid tests often utilize urine or saliva for testing. One advantage to rapid tests is that they provide a screening result within 4 hours on average. Any specimens that screen positive would still require a confirmatory test. Confirmatory test results are typically available in 2 to 3 days. An applicant is notified that pre-employment drug testing will need to take place as part of the application process.
They may have to present to the laboratory within a specified time frame, for example within 24 hours, to lessen the chance that drugs in their system will be excreted and undetectable. Applicants are directed to a specific laboratory to submit a sample for drug screening usually for urine test results.
Once at the facility, the applicant must submit a sample at the discretion of the laboratory personnel and in keeping with their standard policies.
Hair, sweat, saliva or blood drug test samples may also be used in pre-employment drug screen, although this is not common practice. During the laboratory evaluation, strict chain-of-custody practices and standards are followed to prevent adulteration of the sample. This legal procedure requires documentation of each person who handles the specimen through the entire phase of testing.
Certain laboratory procedures may require direct visual observation while the specimen is being voided, although this is not common. This occurs most often when the donor has previously attempted to tamper with a sample. Employers may use a standard five-panel test of "street drugs" that may include any of the following substances:.
Some employers may elect a ten-panel drug test that also includes any of the above plus:. Alcohol drug testing may also occur. Other more recent designer drugs of abuse may be included.
Which drug test is used is dependent upon the private employer, federal or state requirements, or other workplace guidelines that may be in place. Many variables may affect the amount of time that a drug remains detectable in the urine or other biological samples, including:. General guidelines are available for detection times. Many drugs stay in the system from 2 to 4 days, although chronic use of marijuana can stay in the system for 3 to 4 weeks or even longer after the last use.
Drugs with a long half-life, such as diazepam , may also stay in the system for a prolonged period of time. Many variables may affect the amount of time that a drug remains detectable in the urine or other biological samples.
Some employees may ask does alcohol show up on a drug test? Alcohol has a short half-life in the urine. A urine drug test for alcohol may detect alcohol for 2 to 12 hours.
Results from workplace drug testing are fairly quick and can usually be received in a few days. An employer may also request to have the test done with a rapid test that can provide results on the same day.
Negative results are usually received within 24 hours; however, a non-negative screen will require further testing that may take a few days up to one week. If the initial screen is negative, a medical review officer MRO will typically contact the employer with the results.
If a positive result occurs, a MRO will contact the applicant for further questioning. It is important to notify the laboratory or MRO of any medications currently in use, including prescription , over-the-counter or herbal medications. The applicant may have to provide proof of a valid prescription and prescriber information for prescription medications.
A concern for anyone undergoing drug testing is the possibility of a false positive result. Initial screening drugs tests may infrequently result in false positive results, although confirmatory GC-MS testing greatly lessens the chances of a false positive - reducing the risk to close to zero. It is important that a person undergoing drug testing complete an accurate history of all prescription, OTC, and herbal drug use prior to the time of the sample collection.
Certain substances, over-the-counter OTC or prescription drugs may result in false positives due to cross-reactivity with other substances, although many assays have been reformulated to avoid these possibilities. Poppy seeds and dextromethorphan have been reported to lead to a false positive result for opiates. Decongestants ephedrine have been implicated in causing false positives for amphetamines. The body metabolizes codeine to morphine and both substances may be found upon testing.
If benzoylecgonine, the main metabolite of cocaine is detected, the person cannot claim that the result is a false positive due to Novocaine or any other "-caine" type of drug. Benzoylecgonine is only found in nature as a metabolite of cocaine, and there would be no other valid reason for it to be present in a drug screen.
As previously mentioned, confirmatory testing with GC-MS will identify individual drugs or metabolites in a sample, and almost eliminate the chance for a false positive result. Doering, et al. Other abnormalities in the urine screen may indicate that results may be a false negative or that there was deliberate adulteration of the sample.