May 13, · Planar is an important variant of the double Gaussian lens. Double Gaussian lens is the basic design which is still used in many cameras. Carl Friedrich developed Gauss to improve the lenses for refracting telescopes. He calculated a lens combination that was free from central and marginal rays of spherical and chromatic aberration. Jul 25, · Planar lenses are symmetrical, which means there is the same arrangement of elements to each side of the centre of the lens (where the aperture is located). As was the case for so much in early optics, the basic arrangement used was devised for Author: Jon Tarrant.
The following article presents a subjective perspective on the history and evolution of the Planar-type lenses from their origins to modern times. Only general-purpose non-macro Carl Panar Planar standard lenses focal length comprised between 40mm and 60mm are discussed.
Because the 50mm focal length has been the most popular and the most investigated for decades, the history of Planar-type lenses is a loupe-view into the history of the German 35mm photography industry and into the evolution of the global photographic market. This article was originally written in Italian in by Marco Cavina and can be found here.
With great pleasure we present this freely translated English version, revised and extended as of early by Alberto Oddo. The symmetrical double-Gauss design was known long before its potential could be fully exploited. Paul Rudolphone ldns the mathematicians working at Zeiss, applied this principle to the calculation of the first Planar in The name derives from its low astigmatism and high field flatness.
With the technology of the time it was impossible to effectively correct coma and prevent loss of contrast, so the Planar design was set aside until after WW2. Those were the days of glory for Tessar- and Sonnar-type lenses, which were already capable especially the Sonnar of better contrast and undetectable coma. These were however specialist macro planra for high magnification photography, and represented a negligibly small lsns.
Berger and Lange systematically studied the Planaar formula and its variables and soon they were able to design several lenses for medium- and large-format cameras, which were later very highly regarded — e.
At that point it was clear that Planar-type lenses could offer better and more consistent corner-to-corner performance than Sonnar, Tessar and Ernostar designs, and Zeiss invested plwnar resources in their ia. Curiously though, the wide range of Zeiss 35mm cameras was still being fitted with Tessar and Sonnar lenses. Already in Berger and Lange had calculated a fast-aperture Planar what did darwin collect in galapagos islands 35mm cameras, but its launch was being delayed.
However, Zeiss managers initially wanted the first Planar to equip their Contaflex cameras. This fixed-lens SLR system was mature and refined, quite popular and very well regarded. Lejs excellent Tessar 2. Planad Contaflex range was very important for Zeiss: its simple construction allowed to contain the price without giving up on quality. Moreover, Zeiss was a major stakeholder of Deckel Llanarthe company that manufactured how to do magic tricks for beginners with pencils shutters equipping Contaflex cameras.
Additionally, as pplanar the Tessar, such lens had to be encased in how to find tin number barrel that allowed the front module to be disassembled and replaced with the optional add-ons — also to be calculated for.
The original Contaflex Tessar 2. With the new Planar, the whole group in front of the diaphragm could be removed, leaving only a dispersive Flint rear group with easily adaptable what is a planar lens. For each add-on, two slightly different versions were calculated. Meanwhile, the Contarex project was almost ready for launch. Zeiss executives, probably fearing that an upgraded Lejs could jeopardize the ambitions of the new and sophisticated Contarex, reconsidered their original plans at the last minute and cancelled the Planar upgrade.
The image above displays the Satz-Planar prototypes, testifying how close they were to full-scale production. Indeed, when competitors threatened the system competitivity by offering faster lenses, Zeiss had planaar top lens designers deal with a response. Interestingly, What is the number 1 girl name cameras were not equipped with the Satz-Planar fromhwat with an earlier version calculated by Berger and Lange in The Planar has no flat cemented surfaces whereas these are elns in the front doublet of the model — also featuring almost flat R13 and R15 surfaces.
Flat surfaces are more easily manufactured and help containing production costs, definitely plsnar issue for a middle-range system like the Contaflex. The coexistence of the Contaflex and Contarex systems, both 35mm, tortured Zeiss managers and what is a planar lens to many initial decisions and almost as many counterdecisions. Not many know that the first Cyclope prototype designed by Sauer was pretty much identical to the actual production model but still sported the old Contaflex branding rather than the roaring Contarex one.
It seems like Zeiss managers were considering the option of palnar the Contaflex line, with all of its customer base and notoriety, and upgrading it to the high-end system that how to activate a verizon phone at home Contarex was planad designed to be.
Looking back, it might have been a more fortunate choice. These years of marketing and development indecision would later prove fatal for Zeiss Ikon as a camera manufacturer.
This lens lene a legendary reputation and many still consider it the overall best standard lens ever made. The first batches, in a silver finish, left the Oberkochen warehouses in A few very rare totally black Carl Zeiss Planar lenses were made during the same period.
It is remarkable that the project was kept on hold for four years while the newer version was definitively aborted. This contributed to the consistency and robust performance the lens became famous for. A few years after the Contarex launch, competitors raised the bar again by offering yet faster lenses.
They appealed low-speed slide users and represented a sort of flagships that catalyzed the sales of the whole lineup. The actual launch of the Planar 1. The Contarex Planar 1. Not everyone knows that, after the initial 1.
This prototype had a complex Gauss design with 8 elements. It contains two cemented doublets, one of which constitutes the front element. It is substantially different from its successor, the Planar 1.
Interestingly, its design involves only three kinds of glass, with as many as five lanthanum-enriched Flint glass elements.
The whatt elements closest to the diaphragm are made of Short-Flint SF6 glass and a SF1 element in position 2 completes the scheme. No Crown glass is included! This was certainly a very daring project for the time, and much more advanced than the Planar 1. Again, this project reached the prototype stage but never moved on: the Planar 1. Meanwhile, the long-time commercial partner Franke und Heidecke Rollei was planning an entry in the 35mm reflex arena. Zeiss lenses w chosen as prestigious companions to attract users into the new system.
With their camera division Ikon Stuttgart losing more and more money, the current identity of Zeiss was starting to delineate: a third-party lens designer and manufacturer that leaves others to struggle in the way-too-fast-paced camera market.
A succinct history of Carl Zeiss Planar lenses
Apr 16, · Only general-purpose (non-macro) Carl Zeiss Planar standard lenses (focal length comprised between 40mm and 60mm) are discussed. Because the 50mm focal length has been the most popular and the most investigated for decades, the history of Planar-type lenses is a loupe-view into the history of the German 35mm photography industry and into the evolution of the global photographic . Zeiss named Gaussian type lens as ‘Planar lens’ firstly at by Zeiss optical engineer Paul Rudolph. The first version planar lens has F aperture, a symmetrical lens, which means the shape of lenses before the aperture are similar to those behind the aperture. However, it is impossible to be totally same. A typical planar lens. Jun 10, · A brand-new Planar 50mm f/ was offered as the kit lens. The lens was designed by Erhard Glatzel in collaboration with Erwin Konschack. As many as eight different prototypes were evaluated, with the seventh being chosen for production. It consisted of an asymmetrical 7-element construction with 4 single elements in front of the diaphragm.
In , H. Nasse wrote a series of technical papers for Carl Zeiss detailing their modern lens history and genealogy. In his three part series, he discussed 5 lens designed that changed the world. While very detailed and technical, it is a difficult read for your average Joe. They are filled with interesting tidbits about optics and engineering. For 35mm film and Full Frame cameras, that translates to 24x36mm with a diagonal of This means, lenses with focal lengths near We usually consider lenses between 35mm — 60mm as normal lenses.
In fact, every 50mm prime ever made by any manufacturer are essentially modified Planar designs. However, a lot of the Vario-Tessar zoom lenses you see on Sony compact cameras have nothing to do with the Tessar design.
However, Sonnar lenses are incompatible with DSLR systems as the rear element would protrude into the mirror box. Thus, only rangefinders, mirrorless cameras, and some medium format cameras can enjoy the Sonnar design. First is the obliqueness of angle the light rays hit the focal plane. Second is the necessity of a retrofocus design. It made reference to Biotar another name for Planar as mentioned above , which was associated with dynamism and photographic quality.
A majority of modern Zeiss wide angles are Distagons, including some normal-wides in the 35mm range. Remember to Like our Facebook page and Follow us on Twitter. Thank you for your support! Not sure why longer focal lengths were not mentioned in the article. Just to correct a one misconseption here: A7R sure lacks an AA-filter, but it still has a thick glasssheet on top of the sensor as revealed in lensesrentals. Basically this glass is usead to equalize incident ray angle differences between differerent A7-models.
Because of this, Loxia or any other lens behaves the same regardless of used A7-camera. Only possible differences are caused by a different pixelsize and microlenses on top of the pixels.
Thank you so much for your correction. Reblogged this on Variety Of Light and commented: Highly recommended read if you are interested in different lens designs and especially that Zeiss stuff!
Planar The symmetrical design places the aperture represented by the vertical line between the two groups of elements, allowing for wider apertures than other designs. The 8 air-to-glass surfaces, unless effectively coated, reduce contrast and introduce flaring and ghosting. A very flat field curvature which leads to sharpness across the entire image plane. Well controlled chromatic aberrations Disadvantages More expensive to produce and heavier than Tessar designs The many air-to-glass surfaces require effective lens coatings to reduce flaring, ghosting, and to improve contrast.
Prone to astigmatisms. What is that? Sonnar lenses do fit in slr cameras! Like Sonnar mm and mm in m42 mount! Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Comment Name Email Website. An online magazine dedicated to bringing original content in the art and craft of photography.