Rack and Pinion Steering: Everything You Need to Know
ID Guide for TRW, Saginaw or Ford Design Rack and Pinions TRW DESIGN TRW design identified by SAGINAW DESIGN Saginaw design identified by: FORD DESIGN • Late design has two-piece housing; Half aluminum spool valve body, Half steel body • Screw-in dust cap, flat or dome-shaped • Early design has cast iron spool valve housing bolted to. Feb 22, · It features a custom-built Saginaw rack-and-pinion that is narrow enough to match the original steering geometry for zero bumpsteer. The standard power kit includes the rack-and-pinion, brackets.
This is a very common steering gear and was used in many vehicles until the rack and pinion steering became popular. The rotary valve directs the power steering fluid under pressure to either side raxk the rack piston, which converts the hydraulic power to mechanical force.
When the vehicle is being driven straight down the roadway the driver saginqw not exerting any force on the steering wheel. Both hydraulic lines provide the same amount of pressure to the steering amd. When the steering wheel is turned one way or the other it causes a torsion bar in the rotary valve to twist.
The top of the torsion bar is connected to the steering wheel and the bottom to the worm shaft. As the torsion bar twists it changes the position of the valve spool and sleeve, directing fluid under pressure to the proper end of the power cylinder. The difference in pressure on either side of the piston which is attached to the rack helps move the rack to reduce turning effort. Ford units will not interchange with any other applications.
There are two types and each can be identified by the type of side cover used. The larger steering gear is known as the model ad has a rectangular side cover retained by four szginaw. The smaller one is designated as the model and has a circular side cover held in place by a retaining snap ring.
The adjustment and overhaul procedures are basically the same for both id. The larger gear box used on full-size vehicles has a steering ratio of Before you attempt any major service operation on the power steering system, the steering gear, steering linkage and front end should be checked for what grass type pokemon are you. Wear your sgainaw glasses.
Replace any worn parts and then lubricate any grease fittings zerks. There may only be a few as sealed non-serviceable joints, and front end parts are becoming more waht. Wipe each grease fit-ting clean with a cloth.
Grease fittings have a one-way spring loaded check valve that allows the grease to go in but not to get out. The tip of the grease fitting allows the grease gun to snap on to the fitting. Put in just enough grease to expand the boot around the joint. Do not break the boot because the grease will leak out and saginae debris will enter rzck premature wear of the joint. If the how to refill epson 91n cartridge is torn, add enough grease to force the old grease and dirt out, and grease the vehicle more often to extend the life of the joint.
If you can find a good boot from an old joint, replace the torn boot. The wheel alignment should be checked saginzw the tires inflated to correct pressures. Check the power steering belt, and replace it, if needed. Tension the new or old belt to specifications. Start the engine, and turn the wheels back and forth a number of times to warm aaginaw the power steering fluid. Oil foaming, a cloudy fluid color and a burnt smell are signs that the power steering pump is ahd to degrade.
If the fluid level is correct, turn the wheels to straight ahead position engine at idle. Using a spring scale, check the amount of steering effort necessary. If the reading exceeds 10 pounds at any point, there is a problem inside the steering gear.
Check the steering wheel free play with the wheels in straight ahead position. If the play exceeds 1 inch, inspect the steering shaft coupler and the tie rods. If rcak check okay, the Pitman shaft may need adjusting. Check the oil-flow and relief sagjnaw operation by turning the steering wheel from one extreme to the other with the engine idling.
Do not hold the steering wheel in either extreme position for more than 2 or 3 seconds. The extreme high pressure can cause damage to the system, if what is a saginaw rack and pinion relief valve is not operating properly. If these valves are working properly, a slight buzzing noise should be heard. If no buzzing is heard, a sticking or faulty valve is the problem. If the pump produces a chattering sound and a noise in the flow control valve, there is air in the system.
Stop the engine, and check saginwa a difference in fluid level. If the level is above the mark, the air must be bled out. With the engine idling, have a buddy turn the steering wheel slowly all the way to the left and then to what is the jenny craig diet plan right 10 or 12 times and sometimes many more.
Add fluid to the reservoir during the air bleeding. Continue the steering wheel turning until there are no air bubbles in the reservoir. Do not hold z steering wheel at the stop position any longer than 2 or 3 seconds. Check the fluid level. Loose steering can also be caused by internal leakage of fluid past the seals in the steering gear. Although you can adjust the Pitman shaft preload in the vehicle GM recommends the removal of the steering gear to make the adjustments at the bench.
How to antique copper wire steering gear also has pinioh be removed, if it is leaking fluid. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Raise adn front of the vehicle on safety stands. Disconnect both lines, and drain the fluid out into a container. Empty the pump reservoir. Cap the gear ports z lines to prevent contamination from dirt. Disconnect the Pitman arm by removing the nut and washer.
Mark the position of the Pitman arm to the Pitman shaft with a center punch. Use a puller to pull off the Pitman arm. Disconnect the steering shaft from the steering gear stub shaft. Remove the attaching bolts, and piniob the steering gear free of the flexible coupling and the frame rail. Power wash the outside of the steering gear. To adjust the worm thrust bearing preload clamp the steering gear in a vise with the stub shaft pointing up.
Loosen the Pitman shaft adjust-ing screw locknut. Loosen the adjuster plug locknut 1 turn using a chain wrench. Measure the drag torque with an inch-pound torque wrench and adapter on the socket. Bottom out the adjuster plug using long needle nose pliers.
The proper tool how to make crab curry indian style use is called a pin anv wrench, and once you see one it is very easy to replicate. Back off the adjuster plug to add 3 to 4 inch-pounds stub shaft torque in excess of drag torque.
Total torque should waginaw exceed 10 inch-pounds. Tighten the adjuster plug ssginaw securely while holding the adjuster plug in position.
Annd the setting since preload torque changes when the locknut is tightened. If the preload is less or greater than required, the steering gear has to be disassembled for inspection and repair. The flat side of the stub shaft should face up and be parallel with the side cover. Back the adjusting screw out about 25 degrees, and tighten the lock nut. The over-center torque reading should be about 14 inch pounds. A rebuild kit will not solve this problem. This becomes the expensive side of repair.
Let's adopt the easy way and say the adjustments tightened up the steering gear and there are no fluid leaks. Turn the steering wheel what is x divided by x straight ahead position. Fit the coupling in place on the steering shaft, and center the stub shaft. Slide the stub shaft into the coupling and work the steering saglnaw into place on the frame side rail.
Install the attaching bolts and torque to specifications. With the wheels in straight ahead position install the Pitman arm and torque to specifications foot pounds Chevrolet. Replace the bolts in what are phosphates used for coupling. Remove the caps, and reconnect and tighten the pressure and return lines. Fill the pump reservoir with fresh fluid, and start the engine. Bleed the air out by turning the steering wheel from side to side without hitting the stops.
Check the fluid level, and add if necessary. Lower the vehicle off the safety stands. Connect the battery cable. Road test. Clean the outside of the housing, if you didn't do it before. Arck and then follow the service manual for the steering gear you are rebuilding.
Make notes on the disassembly of parts rac help in assembly. The following is general information that will apply to many types of Saginaw constant ratio rotary-valve steering gear. Work on a clean bench.
Handle the interior parts carefully.
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With rack and pinion steering, the rotation of the pinion causes linear motion of the rack, which turns the vehicle's wheels left or right. Rack and pinion systems are a common component in. Mar 06, · In its place is a rack and pinion. The steering shaft is hooked to the pinion in the steering gear. when the pinion rotates from driver input, the rack moves side to side, pushing and pulling the wheels. Tierods are connected from the rack to the wheels. If I am not mistaken, the fluid paths of both systems is similar. The Saginaw gearbox is a rotary-valve type unit using recirculating ball bearings. They are referred to as recirculated ball-type because they use the same ball bearings on both the worm gear and the sector gear to reduce friction within the housing. You will .
Contact Info. Im Searching for Vehicles Parts Services Articles. Customer Service. Sell your Car Subscribe. Few mechanical parts have enjoyed a production life longer than the Saginaw power steering gearbox.
First introduced in the early Sixties on full-size Oldsmobiles, the Saginaw gearbox has gone through many internal updates; however, it remained virtually the same and was the basis for General Motors power steering systems until the advent of rack and pinion steering.
In some GM trucks, this unit is still used today. Saginaw gearboxes were also used in AMCs, Jeeps, Internationals and several Ford models; however, the Ford units will not interchange with any of the other applications. The Saginaw gearbox is a rotary-valve type unit using recirculating ball bearings. They are referred to as recirculated ball-type because they use the same ball bearings on both the worm gear and the sector gear to reduce friction within the housing.
You will often see this gearbox referred to as an "" or "" unit. The only major difference between these two units is how the pitman shaft is held into the unit. An unit has a four-bolt cover on the top of the unit the end of the shaft opposite the pitman arm spline. The units use a single snap ring that holds a round cover into the top of the housing.
GM also used two gearboxes, depending on the weight and size of the model. Station wagons, full-size cars and large front-wheel-drive cars used a heavy-duty gearbox usually identified by GM part number These units had a 3. These units were rated at a Mid-size and smaller models used a steering box tagged , and these units used a 3-inch piston.
The travel on the smaller-piston unit was three to 3. The mid-size gearboxes were rated at a Both the 3. You can substitute between both of these units. Aside from the mounting bolt pattern most are 4-bolt mount but there are two different three-bolt mounts, as well , these units are all interchangeable.
The more responsive This is a good thing to remember when you begin your search for a replacement. You can locate one of the basic Saginaw "" series power steering boxes in one of these vehicles:. Many enthusiasts have also found that an easy way to upgrade the handling on your car is to convert to a Saginaw quick-ratio power-steering box.
These were original equipment on some mid-size models, and they can be transplanted into most other GM vehicles, if you can locate one from your local pick-a-part. These gearboxes will improve the steering and handling for your car with a more responsive lower gear ratio and also reduce the steering wheel travel to 2. The '76 Camaros as well as '76 Chevelles, Malibus and Monte Carlos also used an optional quick ratio These are very popular units because they are an easy bolt-in performance conversion.
The '96 S pickups used a Another option is to use late-model G or F Body units. They are also All of the Monte Carlo SS cars had these options. These units will reduce steering wheel revolutions from lock to lock down to 2. An important thing to remember when interchanging Saginaw gearboxes is to use your original pitman arm and idler arm if possible, to maintain the proper steering geometry.
Different body styles have different length idler and pitman arms; for example, the F body arms are longer than those in an A or G body and could cause alignment and front-end clearance problems if used in different body styles. When interchanging between earlier and later GM gearboxes, you will notice the power steering hose fittings are not the same.
Later fittings are metric and incorporate an O-ring, whereas all Sixties and most early Seventies units used the standard inverted-flare fittings. Auto parts stores sell standard thread to metric thread adapters in several different sizes that allow you to use your original hoses with the later-design metric gearboxes.
The rag joint or steering gear coupler may also have to be changed. These can be obtained with the gearbox when being pulled from the donor car, or new ones are still available from the GM dealerships.
The coupler off a and-up Chevy pickup GM part number works just fine to adapt the early-style steering shaft to the later model gearbox. Rag joints are also available from Lares Corporation, which can assist you with interchangeability questions and the purchase of freshly remanufactured power steering components as well.
Finding a replacement gearbox for your General Motors car can be very easy because of the abundance of original units available that will readily interchange. Completing an upgrade to a quick ratio steering gearbox can also give your ride some additional handling and make a classic drive like a newer model. Continue Reading.