What is the medical treatment for strep throat

By Mazum | 28.05.2021

what is the medical treatment for strep throat

Strep Throat

Strep throat is treated using antibiotics. An antibiotic is a type of medicine that kills the bacteria that cause the infection. Antibiotics are often taken as pills or given as a shot. Penicillin and amoxicillin are common antibiotics used to treat strep throat. Nov 20,  · Penicillin or amoxicillin are considered the best first-line treatments for Strep throat. According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) “ There has never been a report of a clinical isolate of group A strep that is resistant to penicillin ”.

Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, look for signs and symptoms of strep throat, and probably order one or more of the rhe tests:. Medications are available to cure strep throat, relieve its symptoms, and prevent its complications and spread. If your doctor diagnoses you or your child with strep throat, your doctor will likely prescribe an oral antibiotic.

If taken within 48 hours of the onset of the illness, antibiotics reduce the duration and severity of symptoms, as well as the risk of complications and the likelihood that infection will spread to others.

With treatment, you or your child should start feeling better in a day or two. Call your doctor if there's no improvement after taking antibiotics for 48 hours. Children taking an antibiotic who feel well and don't have a fever how to send photos through yahoo email without attaching can return to school or child care when they're no longer contagious — usually 24 hours after beginning treatment.

But be sure to finish all the medicine. Stopping early can lead to recurrences and serious complications, such as rheumatic fever or kidney inflammation. To relieve throat pain and reduce fever, try over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen Advil, Motrin IB, others or acetaminophen Tylenol, others.

Use caution when giving aspirin to children or teenagers. Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 3, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should never take aspirin. This is because aspirin has been linked to Reye's syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, in such children. In most cases, antibiotics will quickly wipe out the bacteria causing the infection.

In the meantime, try these tips to relieve symptoms of strep throat:. When you make the appointment, ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as fasting before having a specific test. Make a list of:. Take along a family member or friend, if possible, to help you remember the information you're given.

If you think you or your child might have a strep infection, take steps to relieve symptoms and avoid spreading infection:. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care.

This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Diagnosis Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, thhroat for signs and symptoms of strep throat, and probably order one or more of the following tests: Rapid antigen test. Your doctor may perform a rapid antigen test on a swab sample from your throat. This test can detect strep bacteria in minutes by looking for substances antigens in the throat.

If the test is negative but your doctor still suspects strep, he or she might do a throat culture. Molecular polymerase kedical reaction, or PCR test. This test is also done using a swab sample from your throat. Throat culture. A sterile swab is rubbed over the back of the throat and tonsils to how to desolder surface mount ics a sample of the secretions.

It's not painful, but it may cause gagging. The sample is then medocal in a laboratory for the presence of bacteria, but results can take as long as two days. More Information Recurring strep throat: When is tonsillectomy useful? Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Ghroat on: Tue Twitter. Show references Strep throat: All you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed Dec.

Pichichero ME. Complications of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. Sore throats. Treatment and prevention of streptococcal pharyngitis. Streptococcal pharyngitis. Mayo Clinic; Drutz JE. Acute pharyngitis in children and thr Symptomatic treatment. Wald ER. Group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children and adolescents: Clinical features and diagnosis. Related Recurring strep throat: When is tonsillectomy useful?

Strep throat in infants: A common diagnosis? Strep throat infection. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.

Official Answer

Many viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis. Streptococcus pyogenes , which are also called group A Streptococcus or group A strep, cause acute pharyngitis known as strep throat.

Group A strep pharyngitis is an infection of the oropharynx caused by S. Figure 1. Streptococcus pyogenes group A Streptococcus on Gram stain. Other symptoms may include headache, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting — especially among children. Patients with group A strep pharyngitis typically do not typically have cough, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, oral ulcers, or conjunctivitis. These symptoms strongly suggest a viral etiology.

Patients with group A strep pharyngitis may also present with a scarlatiniform rash. The resulting syndrome is called scarlet fever or scarlatina. Respiratory disease caused by group A strep infection in children younger than 3 years old rarely manifests as acute pharyngitis. In contrast to typical acute group A strep pharyngitis, this presentation in young children is subacute and high fever is rare.

Group A strep pharyngitis is most commonly spread through direct person-to-person transmission. Typically transmission occurs through saliva or nasal secretions from an infected person. People with group A strep pharyngitis are much more likely to transmit the bacteria to others than asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers. Crowded conditions — such as those in schools, daycare centers, or military training facilities — facilitate transmission. Although rare, spread of group A strep infections may also occur via food.

Foodborne outbreaks of pharyngitis have occurred due to improper food handling. Fomites, such as household items like plates or toys, are very unlikely to spread these bacteria.

Humans are the primary reservoir for group A strep. There is no evidence to indicate that pets can transmit the bacteria to humans. People with group A strep pharyngitis or scarlet fever should stay home from work, school, or daycare until:. Group A strep pharyngitis can occur in people of all ages. It is most common among children 5 through 15 years of age. It is rare in children younger than 3 years of age. The most common risk factor is close contact with another person with group A strep pharyngitis.

Adults at increased risk for group A strep pharyngitis include:. Crowding, such as found in schools, military barracks, and daycare centers, increases the risk of disease spread. The differential diagnosis of acute pharyngitis includes multiple viral and bacterial pathogens. Viruses are the most common cause of pharyngitis in all age groups.

History and clinical examination can be used to diagnose viral pharyngitis when clear viral symptoms are present. Viral symptoms include:. Patients with clear viral symptoms do not need testing for group A strep. However, clinicians cannot use clinical examination to differentiate viral and group A strep pharyngitis in the absence of viral symptoms. Clinicians need to use either a rapid antigen detection test RADT or throat culture to confirm group A strep pharyngitis. RADTs have high specificity for group A strep but varying sensitivities when compared to throat culture.

Throat culture is the gold standard diagnostic test. See the resources section for specific diagnosis guidelines for adult and pediatric patients 1,2,3. Clinicians should confirm group A strep pharyngitis in children older than 3 years of age to appropriately guide treatment decisions.

Giving antibiotics to children with confirmed group A strep pharyngitis can reduce their risk of developing sequela acute rheumatic fever. Testing for group A strep pharyngitis is not routinely indicated for:. However, clinicians should follow up a negative RADT in a child with symptoms of pharyngitis with a throat culture. Clinicians should have a mechanism to contact the family and initiate antibiotics if the back-up throat culture is positive.

When left untreated, the symptoms of group A strep pharyngitis are usually self-limited. However, acute rheumatic fever and suppurative complications e.

Patients, regardless of age, who have a positive RADT or throat culture need antibiotics. Clinicians should not treat viral pharyngitis with antibiotics. Penicillin or amoxicillin is the antibiotic of choice to treat group A strep pharyngitis. There has never been a report of a clinical isolate of group A strep that is resistant to penicillin.

However, resistance to azithromycin and clarithromycin is common in some communities. For patients with a penicillin allergy, recommended regimens include narrow-spectrum cephalosporins cephalexin, cefadroxil , clindamycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin.

See the resources section for specific treatment guidelines for adult and pediatric patients 1,2,3. Abbreviation: Max, maximum. Clin Infect Dis. Note: If you are interested in reusing this table, first obtain permission from the journal; request by emailing journals. Asymptomatic group A strep carriers usually do not require treatment. Carriers have positive throat cultures or are RADT positive, but do not have clinical symptoms or an immunologic response to group A strep antigens on laboratory testing.

Compared to people with symptomatic pharyngitis, carriers are much less likely to transmit group A strep to others. Carriers are also very unlikely to develop suppurative or nonsuppurative complications. Some people with recurrent episodes of acute pharyngitis with evidence of group A strep by RADT or throat culture actually have recurrent episodes of viral pharyngitis with concurrent streptococcal carriage.

Repeated use of antibiotics among this subset of patients is unnecessary. However, identifying carriers clinically or by laboratory methods can be very difficult. The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines and Red Book address determining someone if is a carrier and their management. Rarely, suppurative and nonsuppurative complications can occur after group A strep pharyngitis.

Suppurative complications result from the spread of group A strep from the pharynx to adjacent structures. They can include:. Acute rheumatic fever is a nonsuppurative sequelae of group A strep pharyngitis. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a nonsuppurative sequelae of group A strep pharyngitis or skin infections. These complications occur after the original infection resolves and involve sites distant to the initial group A strep infection site.

They are thought to be the result of the immune response and not of direct group A strep infection. Good hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette can reduce the spread of all types of group A strep infection. Hand hygiene is especially important after coughing and sneezing and before preparing foods or eating.

Good respiratory etiquette involves covering your cough or sneeze. Treating an infected person with an antibiotic for at least 12 hours reduces their ability to transmit the bacteria.

Per the American Academy of Pediatrics Red Book , people with group A strep pharyngitis should stay home from work, school, or daycare until:. Humans are the only reservoir for group A strep. In the United States, group A strep pharyngitis is most common during the winter and spring. CDC does not track the incidence of group A strep pharyngitis or other non-invasive group A strep infections.

For information on the incidence of invasive group A strep infections, please visit the ABCs Surveillance Reports website. Top of Page. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Pharyngitis Strep Throat. Minus Related Pages. On This Page. Viruses Cause Most Pharyngitis. Related Links. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

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Cancel Continue. Children: mg twice daily or 3 times daily; adolescents and adults: mg 4 times daily or mg twice daily.

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