A Guide to Hip Anatomy
Jan 16, · The hip bones are: The coxal bone - also called the pelvic, hip or innominate bone - which in humans is composed of three different bones. Those are the ilium bone, the pubis bone and the ischium bone. It includes a highly important joint area, the acetabulum or cotyloid cavity. The hip is actually a ball and socket joint, uniting two separate bones, the femur (thigh bone) with the pelvis. The pelvis features two cup-shaded depressions called the acetabulum, one on either side of the body. The femur is the longest bone in the body and connects to the pelvis at the hip joint.
Your hip joint is designed for both mobility and stability. The hip joint allows your entire lower extremity to move in three planes of motion:. Your hip joint provides vital shock absorption to the torso and upper body as well as stability during standing and other weight-bearing activities. The hip is actually a ball and socket joint, uniting two separate bones, the femur thigh bone with the pelvis. The pelvis features two cup-shaded depressions called the acetabulum, one on either side of the body.
The femur is the longest bone in the body and connects to the pelvis at the hip joint. The head of the femur, shaped like a ball, fits tightly into the acetabulum, forming the ball and socket joint of the hip, allowing the leg to move forward and backward, side to side, and rotate right and left.
The acetabulum is lined with cartilage, which cushions the bones during weightbearing activities and allows the joint to rotate smoothly and freely in all planes of movement with minimal friction. The complex system of ligaments that connect the femur to the pelvis are essential for stability, keeping the hip from moving outside of its normal planes of movement.
The muscles of the hip joint have dual responsibilities working together to provide the power how to remove winrar password without software the hip to move in all directions, as well as to stabilize the entire lower extremity during standing, walking, or other weight-bearing activities.
The information listed on this site is for informational and educational purposes and is not meant as medical advice. Every patient's case is unique and each patient should follow his or her doctor's specific instructions. Please discuss nutrition, medication and treatment options with your doctor to make sure you are getting the proper care for your particular situation.
The information on this site does not replace your doctor's specific instructions. Certain marks Reg. US Pat. All Trademarks acknowledged This information intended for a U. The information listed on this site is common guidance and is not meant as medical advice.
Search Search site:. Your hip anatomy. The hip joint allows your entire lower extremity to move in three planes of motion: forward and backward side to side rotating right and left Your hip joint provides vital shock absorption to the torso and upper body as well as stability during standing and other weight-bearing activities. Your hip is comprised of four main components: Bones Cartilage Ligaments Muscles Hip Bones The hip is actually a ball and socket joint, uniting two separate bones, the femur thigh bone with the pelvis.
Hip Cartilage The acetabulum is lined with cartilage, which cushions the bones during weightbearing activities and allows the joint to rotate smoothly and freely in all planes of movement with minimal friction. Hip Ligaments The complex system of ligaments that connect the femur to the pelvis are essential for stability, keeping the hip from moving outside of its normal planes of movement.
Hip Muscles The muscles of the hip joint have dual responsibilities working what is iso 22000 pdf to provide the power for the hip to move in all directions, as well as to stabilize the entire lower extremity during standing, walking, or other weight-bearing activities.
Aug 19, · The left and right hip bones (innominate bones, pelvic bones) are two irregularly shaped bones that form part of the pelvic girdle – the bony structure that attaches the axial skeleton to the lower limbs. The hip bones have three main articulations: Sacroiliac joint – articulation with the sacrum/5(). Feb 24, · The hip joint is a ball-and-socket synovial joint formed between the os coxa (hip bone) and the femur. A round, cup-shaped structure on the os coxa, known as the acetabulum, forms the socket for the hip joint. The rounded head of the femur Click To View Large Image. Jul 06, · The hip joint is made up of two bones: the pelvis and the femur (the thighbone). It is the largest ball-and-socket joint in your body. The "ball" is the rounded end of the femur (also called the.
The hip joint is a ball-and-socket type joint and is formed where the thigh bone femur meets the pelvis. The femur has a ball-shaped head on its end that fits into a socket formed in the pelvis, called the acetabulum. Large ligaments, tendons, and muscles around the hip joint hold the bones ball and socket in place and keep it from dislocating. The articular cartilage is kept slick by fluid made in the synovial membrane joint lining.
Synovial fluid and articular cartilage are a very slippery combination—3 times more slippery than skating on ice and 4 to 10 times more slippery than a metal on plastic hip replacement. Synovial fluid is what allows us to flex our joints under great pressure without wear. Since the cartilage is smooth and slippery, the bones move against each other easily and without pain.
When the cartilage is damaged, whether secondary to osteoarthritis wear-and-tear type arthritis or trauma, joint motion can become painful and limited. The hip joint is one of the largest joints in the body and is a major weight-bearing joint. A healthy hip can support your weight and allow you to move without pain. Changes in the hip from disease or injury will significantly affect your gait and place abnormal stress on joints above and below the hip.
It takes great force to seriously damage the hip because of the strong, large muscles of the thighs that support and move the hip. Anatomical terms allow us to describe the body and body motions more precisely. Identifying specific areas of pain helps to guide the next steps in treatment or work-up.
Below are some anatomic terms doctors use to describe location applied to the hip :. Like the shoulder , the hip is a ball-and-socket joint, but is much more stable. The stability in the hip begins with a deep socket—the acetabulum. Additional stability is provided by the surrounding muscles, hip capsule and associated ligaments.
If you think of the hip joint in layers, the deepest layer is bone, then ligaments of the joint capsule, then muscles are on top. Various nerves and blood vessels supply the muscles and bones of the hip.
The hip is formed where the thigh bone femur meets the three bones that make up the pelvis: the ilium, the pubis pubic bone and the ischium. These three bones converge to form the acetabulum, a deep socket on the outer edge of the pelvis. By adulthood, these three bones are completely fused and the pelvis is effectively a single bone. The femur is the longest bone in the body.
The neck of the femur connects the femoral head with the shaft of the femur. The neck ends at the greater and lesser trochanters, which are bony prominences of the femur that various muscles attach to. The greater trochanter serves as the site of attachment for the abductor and external rotator muscles which are important stabilizers of the hip joint. This is the prominent part of your hip that you can actually feel on the outer aspect of your thigh.
The lesser trochanter serves as the attachment site of the iliopsoas tendon, one of the muscles that allows you to bend your hip. It is important to remember that the actual hip joint lies deep in the groin area. This is important, because true hip joint issues are typically associated with groin pain. The hip joint is a ball and socket type joint. The femoral head ball fits into the acetabulum socket of the pelvis.
The large round head of the femur rotates and glides within the acetabulum. The depth of the acetabulum is further increased by a fibrocartilagenous labrum that attaches to the outer rim of the acetabulum. It acts to deepen the socket and to add additional stability to the hip joint.
The labrum can become torn and cause symptoms such as pain, weakness, clicking, and instability of the hip. The stability of the hip is increased by the strong ligaments that encircle the hip the iliofemoral, pubofemoral, and ischiofemoral ligaments. These ligaments completely encompass the hip joint and form the joint capsule. The iliofemoral ligament is considered by most experts to be the strongest ligament in the body. The ligamentum teres is a small tubular structure that connects the head of the femur to the acetabulum.
It contains the artery of the ligamentum teres. In infants, this serves as a relatively important source of blood supply to the head of the femur. In adults, the ligamentum teres is thought by most to be more of a vestigial structure that serves little function. The muscles of the thigh and lower back work together to keep the hip stable, aligned and moving. It is the muscles of the hip that allow the movements of the hip:. The hip muscles are divided up into three basic groups based on their location: anterior muscles front , posterior back , and medial inside.
The muscles of the anterior thigh consist of the quadriceps or quads : vastus medialis, intermedius, lateralis and rectus femoris muscles. The main functions of the quads are flexion bending of the hip and extension straightening of the knee. The gluteal and hamstring muscles, as well as the external rotators of the hip are located in the buttocks and posterior thigh.
The gluteal muscles consist of the gluteus maximum, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus. The gluteus maximus is the main hip extensor and helps keep up the normal tone of the fascia lata or iliotibial IT band, which is the long, sheet-like tendon on the side of your thigh. It helps with motion of the hip, but perhaps more importantly, acts to help stabilize the knee joint.
Gluteus medius and minimus are the main abductors of the hip —that is, they move the leg away from the midline of the body using the spine as a midline reference point.
They also are the main internal rotators of the hip i. The gluteus medius and minimus are also important stabilizers of the hip joint and help to keep the pelvis level as we walk. The tensor fascia lata TFL is another abductor of the hip, which, along with the gluteus maximus, attaches to the IT band.
The IT band is a common cause of lateral outside hip, thigh, and knee pain. The medial muscles of the hip are involved in the adduction of the leg i. These muscles include the adductors adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, pectineus, gracilis. Obturator externus also helps to adduct the leg.
The external rotator muscles piriformis, gemelli, obturator internus of the hip are located in the buttock area and assist in lateral rotation of the hip out-toeing. Lateral rotation is needed for crossing the legs.
The sciatic nerve is located where it could get injured from a backwards dislocation of the femoral head. Nerves carry signals from the brain to the muscles to move the hip and carry signals from the muscles back to the brain about pain, pressure and temperature. The main nerves of the hip that supply the muscles in the hip include the femoral, obturator, and sciatic nerves.
The sciatic nerve is the most commonly recognized nerve in the hip and thigh. The sciatic nerve is large—as big around as your thumb—and travels beneath the gluteus maximus down the back of the thigh where it branches to supply the muscles of the leg and foot.
Hip dislocations can cause injury to the sciatic nerve. The blood supply to the hip is extensive and comes from branches of the internal and external iliac arteries: the femoral, obturator, superior and inferior gluteal arteries. The femoral artery is well-known because of its use in cardiac catheterization. You can feel its pulse in your groin area. It travels from deep within the hip down the thigh and down to the knee.
It is the continuation of the external iliac artery which lies within the pelvis. The main blood supply to the femoral head comes from vessels that branch off of the femoral artery: the lateral and medial femoral circumflex arteries. Disruption of these arteries can lead to osteonecrosis bone death of the femoral head. These arteries can become disrupted with hip fractures and hip dislocations.
Bursae are fluid filled sacs lined with a synovial membrane which produce synovial fluid. Bursae are often found near joints. Their function is to lessen the friction between tendon and bone, ligament and bone, tendons and ligaments, and between muscles. There are as many as 20 bursae around the hip. Inflammation or infection of the bursa called bursitis. The trochanteric bursa is located between the greater trochanter the bony prominence on the femur and the muscles and tendons that cross over the greater trochanter.
This bursa can get irritated if the IT band is too tight. This bursa is a common cause of lateral thigh hip pain. Two other bursa that can get inflamed are the iliopsoas bursa, located under the iliopsoas muscle and the bursa located over the ischial tuberosity the bone you sit on. The hip joint is largely responsible for mobility.
Lastly, there are many conditions in and around the hip and even conditions of the spine, that can cause pain in the hip area. Note that the information in this article is purely informative and should never be used in place of the advice of professionals. Eight years ago I got a sudden, painful and persistent injury from pulling a heavy object while seated with my knees bent like a rower pulls oars.
I thought it was a deep groin muscle adductor tear. A scan only showed a small inguinal hernia and x-ray showed my hip was ok. I had the hernia repaired but the pain remained. I then had over 8 years 4 more x-rays and scans and ultimately an MRI but no one could find the problem.
Then a Orthopedic Surgeon took one look at my x-ray and said I clearly needed a hip replacement. I went for a second opinion from another OS who said my femur was drifting away from my body and the ball was catching on the edges of the socket. He confirmed a hip replacement was required. I was wondering if regular exercises on the medial muscles adductors would be able to pull the hip back into the socket reduce the pain and avert a replacement? Was taking 12 he release tabs if morphine and 10mg oxytcodone every 4 hrs as needed.