According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), the Holocaust was "the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jewish men, women and children by the Nazi regime and its collaborators". In addition, 11 million members of other groups were murdered during the "era of the Holocaust".Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins. Approximately six million Jews and some 5 million others, targeted for racial, political, ideological and behavioral reasons, died in the Holocaust. More than one million of those who perished were Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins.
Between andNazi Germany and its allies established more than 44, camps and other incarceration sites including ghettos. The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced how to send a mass text message on iphone 4, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder.
Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Among these sites was Dachau, the longest operating camp. The Dachau concentration camp was established in March It was the first regular concentration camp established by the National Socialist Nazi government. Heinrich Himmler, as police how to get jingle ball tickets z100 of Munich, officially described the camp as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners.
It was located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the northeastern part of the town of Dachau, about 10 miles northwest of Munich in southern Germany. On March 22,the first prisoner transports arrived at the camp. During the first year, the camp had a capacity of 5, prisoners. Initially the internees were primarily German Communists, Social Democrats, trade unionists, and other political opponents of the Nazi regime. Over time, other groups were also interned at Dachau, such as Jehovah's WitnessesRoma Gypsieshomosexualsas well as "asocials" and repeat criminal offenders.
During the early years relatively few Jews were interned in Dachau and then usually because they belonged to one of the above groups or had completed prison sentences after being convicted for violating the Nuremberg Laws of When Eicke became Inspector of the newly established German concentration camp system, he ensured that the Dachau camp served as a model for all later concentration camps.
It also became a training center for SS guards who were deployed throughout the concentration camp system. In earlythe SS, using prisoner labor, began construction of a large complex of buildings on the grounds of the original camp. Prisoners what will be will be forced to do this work, starting with the destruction of the old munitions factory, under terrible conditions.
The construction was officially completed in mid-August and the camp remained essentially unchanged until Dachau thus remained in operation for the entire period of the Third Reich.
The Dachau camp was a training center for SS concentration camp guards. The camp's organization and routine became the model for all Nazi concentration camps.
The number of Jewish prisoners at Dachau rose with the increased persecution of Jews. On November 10—11,in the aftermath of Kristallnachtalmost 11, Jewish men were interned there. Most of men in this group were released after incarceration of a few weeks to a few months, many after proving they had made arrangements to emigrate from Germany. The camp was divided into two sections—the camp area and the crematoria area. The camp area consisted of 32 barracks, including one for clergy imprisoned for opposing the Nazi regime and one reserved for medical experiments.
The camp administration was located in the gatehouse at the main entrance. The camp area had a group of support buildings, containing the kitchen, laundry, showers, and workshops, as well as a prison block Bunker. The courtyard between the prison and the central kitchen was used for the summary execution of prisoners. An electrified barbed-wire fence, a ditch, and a wall with seven guard towers surrounded the camp. Inthe crematorium area was constructed next to the main camp.
It included the old crematorium and the new crematorium Barrack X with a gas chamber. There is no credible evidence that the gas chamber in Barrack X was used to murder human beings. Instead, prisoners underwent "selection"; those who were judged too sick or weak to continue working were sent to the Hartheim "euthanasia" killing center near Linz, Austria. More than 2, Dachau prisoners were murdered in the gas chambers at Hartheim.
In addition, mass executions by shooting took place, first in the bunker courtyard and later in a specially designed SS shooting range. Thousands of Dachau prisoners were murdered there, including at least 4, Soviet prisoners of war following the invasion of the Soviet Union in Beginning inGerman physicians performed medical experiments on prisoners in Dachau.
Physicians and scientists from the Luftwaffe German Air Force and the German Experimental Institute for Aviation conducted high-altitude and hypothermia experiments, as well as experiments to test methods of making seawater potable.
These efforts aimed to aid German pilots who conducted bombing raids or who were downed in icy waters. German scientists also carried out experiments to test the efficacy of pharmaceuticals against diseases like malaria and tuberculosis. Hundreds of prisoners died or were permanently disabled as a result of these experiments. Dachau prisoners were used as forced laborers.
At first, they were employed in the operation of the camp, in various construction projects, and in small handicraft industries established in the camp. Prisoners built roads, worked in gravel pits, and drained marshes. During the war, forced labor using concentration camp prisoners became increasingly important to German armaments production.
In the summer and fall ofto increase war production, satellite camps under the administration of Dachau were established near armaments factories throughout southern Germany. Dachau alone had some subcamps, mainly in southern Bavaria where prisoners worked almost exclusively in armaments works. Thousands of prisoners were worked to death. What kind of people were killed in the holocaust of Dachau. As Allied what is population density mean advanced toward Germany, the Germans began to move prisoners from concentration camps near the front to prevent the capture of intact camps and their prisoners.
Transports from the evacuated camps in the east arrived continuously at Dachau, resulting in a dramatic deterioration of conditions. After days of travel, with little or no food or water, the prisoners arrived weak and exhausted, often near death. Typhus epidemics became a serious problem due to overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, insufficient provisions, and the weakened state of the prisoners. On April 26,as American forces approached, there were 67, registered prisoners in Dachau and its subcamps.
More than half of this number were in the main camp. Of these, 43, were categorized as political prisoners, while 22, were Jews, with the remainder falling into various other categories. As Allied units approached, at least 25, prisoners from the Dachau camp system were force marched south or transported away from the camps in freight trains.
During these so-called death marches, the Germans shot anyone who could no longer continue; many also died of starvation, hypothermia, or exhaustion. On April 29,American forces liberated Dachau. As they neared the camp, they found more than 30 railroad cars filled with bodies brought to Dachau, all in an advanced state of decomposition.
In early MayAmerican forces liberated the prisoners who had been sent on the death march. The number of prisoners who died in the camp and the subcamps between January and May was at least 28, This number does not include those who perished there between and the end ofas well as an unknown number of unregistered prisoners. It is unlikely that the total number of victims who died in Dachau will ever be known.
International Dachau Committee. Marcuse, Harold. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Neurath, Paul. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
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For Teachers Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time how to make your own plant pots teach about the Holocaust. About This Site. Glossary : Full Glossary.
Blackberry pearl how to use Between andNazi Germany and its allies established more than 44, camps and other incarceration sites including ghettos.
More information about this image. Prisoners in the Early Years of the Camp During the first year, the camp had a capacity of 5, prisoners. Camp Sections The camp was divided into two sections—the camp area and the crematoria area. Medical Experiments Beginning inGerman physicians performed medical experiments on prisoners in Dachau. Forced Labor Dachau prisoners were used as forced laborers.
Liberation Liberation of Dachau As Allied forces advanced toward Germany, the Germans began to move prisoners from concentration camps near the front to prevent what is the meaning of shat capture of intact camps and their prisoners. Number of Prisoners The number of prisoners incarcerated in Dachau between and exceededGlossary Terms.
Critical Thinking Questions Investigate what target groups were imprisoned in Dachau in the early years of the Nazi regime. Why were they jailed and held? How could the development of a system of concentration camps be a precursor to mass atrocity and genocide? Further Reading Berben, Paul.
Dachau, The Official History. London: Norfolk Press, Thank you for supporting our work We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
About two out of every three Jews living in Europe before the war were killed in the Holocaust. When World War II ended in , six million European Jews were dead; more than one million of . Five million is frequently cited as the number of non-Jews killed by the Nazis. The figure is inaccurate and was apparently an invention of famed Nazi-hunter Simon Wiesenthal. According to historian Deborah Lipstadt, he began to refer to “eleven million victims” of the Holocaust, six million Jews and five million non-Jews in the s. The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jewish men, women and children by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January , believed that Germans were "racially superior" and they wanted to create a “racially pure” state.
Auschwitz was the largest and deadliest of six dedicated extermination camps where hundreds of thousands of people were tortured and murdered during World War II and the Holocaust under the orders of Nazi dictator, Adolf Hitler. As one of the greatest tragedies of the modern age, the Holocaust has inspired countless films and books. These works have helped audience members and readers grapple with what happened to individuals during this period.
The scale of the these horrors, however, can be difficult to grasp. Below are some of the devastating facts and figures associated with the Auschwitz death camp, which operated in German-occupied Poland from until its liberation on January 27, The Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates that 1. Of this total, nearly 1. The other approximately , people were predominantly made up of non-Jewish Poles, the mentally challenged, Roma people, homosexuals and Soviet prisoners of war.
A total 1. Survivors of Auschwitz leaving the camp at the end of World War II, photographed by a Russian photographer during the making of a film about liberation of the camp. Above them is the German slogan 'Arbeit macht frei' 'Work makes one free'. Among the 7, people liberated at the closure of the camps, most were very ill, or close to death. Weeks earlier, with Soviet forces approaching the camp system, nearly 60, prisoners had been evacuated and forced to march west toward Wodzislaw, away from the complex on what are today known as the death marches.
More than 15, people died on these marches, often succumbing to exposure, starvation, or cold weather. Those who could not keep up were shot by SS guards. The first of the three camps opened in All of them were eventually shut down in , after the camps were liberated by the Soviet army.
Using photo analysis techniques on World War II aerial reconnaissance film, two CIA analysts produced the only known photographs of the Birkenau extermination unit at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp, Much of the site of the death camp was cleared by forced labor. Today, buildings and ruins remain on the site. More prisoners came from Hungary than any other country, with people from Poland , and France 69, making up the next largest national groups.
Among the total number of children sent to Auschwitz, the exact number who were killed remains unknown. However, on a single day— October 10, — children were gassed to death. A giant pile of shoes left behind by the camp's victims are preserved by the Auschwitz-Birkenau foundation, whose inventory also comprises 3, suitcases; more than 88 pounds of eyeglasses; striped uniforms; prayer shawls, and more than 12, pots and pans brought to the camp by victims who believed they would eventually be resettled.
The hangar of shoes at Auschwitz concentration camp. Among the number of prisoners who attempted to escape, were successful and lived to see the end of the war. Many of them were helped by local Polish civilians, who hated the SS and the camp. Every prisoner who manages to escape can count on all possible help as soon as he reaches the first Polish homestead. The two-story barracks were originally designed to hold prisoners.
Women in the barracks at Auschwitz, Poland, January Photo taken by a Russian photographer shortly after the liberation of the camp. Over its five-year tenure, some 8, worked at the camp , including female guards. According to the limited available information, many were Catholic or Lutheran.
Of 1, Auschwitz SS men, 70 percent had only an elementary education, while 5. While some of the charged of crimes were sentenced to death or spent years in prison, many were acquitted of their crimes. Other former SS workers known to have worked in the camps were called by the court as witnesses but did not face trial, themselves. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you.
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