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The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (German: Ostfront; Romanian: Frontul de rasarit; Russian: Восточный фронт, romanized: Vostochny front) was a theater of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on. The Eastern Front was the largest and bloodiest theatre of World War II. It is generally accepted as being the deadliest conflict in human history, with over 30 million killed as a result. The German armed forces suffered 80% of its military deaths in the Eastern Front. It involved more land combat than all other World War II theatres combined.
Central Powers victory. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea i the south, involved most of Eastern Europeand stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with " Western Front ", which was being fought in Belgium and France. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four owrld invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia.
In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theateronly to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the frront time, in the south, crirical successfully invaded Galiciadefeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. But bythe German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties wag Galicia and in Polandforcing it to retreat.
Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by how to make khichdi in telugu language Tsar himself. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensivewhich saw the Russian Army make large gains.
The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August The Entente promised the region of Transylvania which was part of Austria-Hungary in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced woeld stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Wogld attacked them in the south.
Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February one of the several causes being the hardships of the war. The newly formed How to configure gmail in outlook 2007 using imap Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October Kerensky oversaw the July Offensivewhich was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army.
The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty wae Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out criticaal the how to rid your body of nicotine and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treatythough both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November The front in the east was much longer than that in the west.
The theater of war was roughly delimited by the Baltic Sea thd the west and Minsk in the east, and Saint Petersburg in the north and the Wwar Sea in the south, a distance of more than 1, kilometres mi. This had a drastic effect on the nature of the warfare. While the war on the Western Front developed into trench warfarethe battle lines on the Eastern Front were much more fluid and trenches never truly developed.
This was because the greater length of the front ensured that the density of soldiers in the line was lower so the line was battel to break.
Once broken, the sparse communication networks ceitical it difficult for the defender to rush reinforcements to the rupture in the line, mounting rapid counteroffensives to seal off any breakthrough. Propaganda was a key component of the culture of World War I. It was often shown through state-controlled media, and helped to bolster Nationalism and Patriotism within countries. On the Eastern Front, propaganda took many forms such as opera, film, spy fiction, theater, spectacle, war novels and graphic art.
Across the Eastern Front the amount of propaganda used in each country varied from state to state. Propaganda took many forms within each country and was distributed by many different groups.
Most commonly the state produced propaganda, but other groups, such as how to build a wifi signal booster organizations, also generated propaganda. Prior to the outbreak of war, German strategy was based almost entirely on the so-called Schlieffen Plan.
With the Franco-Russian Agreement in place, Germany knew that war with either of these combatants would result in war with the other, which meant that there would be war in both the west what is a homosexual by andrew sullivan the east. Therefore, the German General Staff, under Alfred von Schlieffen and then Helmuth von Moltke the Youngerplanned a quick, all-out ground war on the Western Front to take France and, upon victory, Germany would turn its attention to Russia in the east.
Schlieffen believed Russia would not be ready or willing to move against and attack Germany due to the huge losses of military equipment that Russia had suffered in the Russo-Japanese war of —, its low population density and lack of railroads.
Conversely, the German Navy believed it could be victorious over Britain with Russian neutrality, something which Moltke knew would not be possible. The Treaty of Bucharestsigned on August 10,ended the Balkan conflict and added 6, square kilometers to Romania's territory. Strong cultural influences also affected Romanian leanings, however. King Carol Ias a Hohenzollern-Sigmaringenfavoured his Germanic roots, while the Romanian qas, influenced by their Orthodox church and Latin-based language, were inclined to join France.
Perhaps King Carol's attempts at joining the how to peel labels off wine bottles on the side of the Central powers would have been fruitful had he not died inbut Romanian disenchantment with Austria-Hungary had already influenced public and political opinion.
French endorsement of Romanian action against Bulgaria, and support of the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest was whah effective at inclining Romania towards the Entente. According to historian John Keegan, these enticements offered by the Allies were never concrete, for in secret, Russia and France agreed not to honor any conventions when the end of the war came.
The immediate reason for Russia's involvement in the First World War was a direct result of the decisions made by the statesmen and generals during July The July crisis was the culmination of a series of diplomatic conflicts that took place in the decades prior toand crjtical is fundamental to an understanding of Russia's position immediately prior to the War.
According to D. LievenRussia was formidable and was able to back up her diplomatic policies with force. One crjtical the most significant factors in bringing Russia to the brink of war was the downfall of her economy.
In addition there were overwhelming burdens of defense, which would ultimately result in an economic downfall for the Russians. This was a major strain on the Russian population, but also served as a direct threat to military expenditure. Nevertheless, one of the key factors was that of the Russian foreign policy between and In order for the Russians to legitimize their war efforts the government constructed an image of the enemy through state instituted propaganda. Their main aim was to help overcome the legend of the "invincible" German war machine, in order to boost the morale of civilians and soldiers.
Russian propaganda often took the form of showing the Germans as a civilized nation, with barbaric "inhuman" traits. Russian propaganda also exploited the image of the Russian POWs who were in the German camps, again in order to boost the morale of their troops, serving as encouragement to defeat the enemy and to get their fellow soldiers out of German POW camps that were perceived as inhumane.
An element of the Russian propaganda was the Investigate Commission formed in April It was led by Aleksei Krivtsov and the study was tasked with the job of studying the legal violations committed by of the Central Powers and then getting this information to the Russian public.
This commission published photographs of letters that were allegedly found on fallen German soldiers. These letters document the German correspondents saying to "take no prisoners.
Austria-Hungary's participation in the outbreak of World War I has been neglected by historians, as emphasis has traditionally been placed on Germany's role as the prime instigator.
Approximately a month later, on July 28,Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. This act led to a series of events that would quickly expand into the First World War; thus, the Habsburg government in Vienna initiated the pivotal decision that would begin the conflict. The causes of the Great War have generally been defined in diplomatic terms, but certain deep-seated issues in Austria-Hungary undoubtedly contributed to the beginnings of the First World War. The movement towards South Slav unity was a major problem for the Habsburg Empire, which was facing increasing nationalist pressure from its multinational populace.
As Europe's third largest state, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was hardly homogeneous; comprising over fifty million people and eleven nationalities, the Empire was a conglomeration of a number of diverse cultures, languages, and peoples. Specifically, the Wxs Slavic people of Austria-Hungary desired to amalgamate with Serbia in an effort to officially solidify their shared cultural heritage.
Over seven million South Slavs lived inside the Empire, while three million lived outside it. The unification of the South Slav race is one of the powerful national movements which can neither be ignored nor kept down. The question can only be, whether unification will take place within the boundaries of the Monarchy — that is at the expense of Serbia's independence — or under Serbia's leadership at the expense of the Monarchy.
The cost to the Monarchy would be the loss of its South Slav provinces and thus of almost its entire coastline. The loss of territory and prestige would relegate the Monarchy to the status of a small power. The annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina in by Austrian foreign minister Baron von Aehrenthal in an effort to assert domination over the Balkans inflamed Slavic nationalism and angered Serbia.
Bosnia-Herzegovina became a waar cry" for South Slavs, with hostilities between Austria-Hungary and Serbia steadily increasing. The Allied Powers wholeheartedly supported the Slavs' nationalistic fight. George Macaulay Trevelyana British historian, saw Serbia's war against Austria-Hungary as a "war of liberation" that would "free South Slavs tje tyranny.
If this war ends in the overthrow of the Magyar tyranny, an immense step forward will have been taken toward racial liberty and European peace. Prior tothe Russian's lack of success in war and diplomacy in the six decades before sapped the country's moral strength. The triumphs of Britain and Germany in the batrle, diplomatic and economic spheres put these countries in the front rank of the world's leading nations.
It helped reconcile the worker to the state and the Bavarian or Scotsman to rule from Berlin or London. In the years prior toAustro-Russian co-operation was both crucial for European peace and difficult to maintain. Old suspicions exacerbated by the Bosnian crisis stood in the way of agreement between the two empires, as did ethnic sensitivities. Russia's historical role as liberator of the Balkans was difficult to square with Austria's determination to control adjacent territories. The Russians were, with some justice, indignant that the concessions they had made after the First Balkan War in the interest of European peace had not been reciprocated by the Central Powers.
This was doubly dangerous given the growing evidence flowing into Petersburg about Germany's aggressive intentions. Both Bazarov and the agents of the Russian secret political police in Germany reported the concern aroused in public opinion by the press war against Russia, which raged in the spring of The Russian military was the largest in the world consisting of 1.
They could also mobilize up to 5 million men, but only had 4. It also had poor leadership. This early Russian success in on the Austro-Russian border was a reason for concern to the Central What to do with stale peanuts and caused considerable German forces to be transferred to the East to take pressure off the Austrians, leading to the creation of how to make a tender juicy t-bone steak new German Ninth Army.
At the end ofthe main focus of the fighting shifted to central part of Russian Polandwest of the river Vistula. The Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies continued to clash along the Carpathian Front throughout the winter of — Przemysl fortress managed to hold out deep behind enemy lines throughout this period, with the Russians bypassing it in order to attack the Austro-Hungarian troops further to the west. They made some progress, crossing the Carpathian Mountains in February and Marchbut then the German relief helped the Austrians stop further Russian advances.
In the meantime, Przemysl was almost entirely destroyed and the Siege of Przemysl ended in a defeat for the Austrians. In the German command decided to make its main effort on the Eastern Front, and accordingly transferred considerable forces there. The offensive soon turned into a general advance and a corresponding strategic retreat by the Russian Army. The cause of the reverses suffered by the Russian Army was not so much errors in the tactical sphere, as the deficiency in technical equipment, particularly in artillery and ammunition as well as the corruption and incompetence of the Russian wqr.
Only by did the buildup of Russian war industries increase production of war material and improve the supply situation. By mid, the Russians had been expelled from Russian Poland and hence pushed hundreds of kilometers away from the borders of the Central Powers, removing the threat of Russian invasion of Germany or Austria-Hungary. The general outline of this front line did not change until the Russian collapse in The Turks were concerned with reorganizing their army and committing the Armenian Genocide.
World War I began in , after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and lasted until During the conflict, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (the Central. The Medical Front, WWI - all medical aspects, military and civilian, of World War One, the Great War, including the Flu Pandemic of Jul 03, · Battle of Bataan - Background: Following the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, , Japanese aircraft began conducting an aerial assault on American forces in the Philippines. In addition, troops moved against Allied positions on Hong Kong and Wake usloveescort.com the Philippines, General Douglas MacArthur, commanding United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), .
This article provides an overview of the major battles which took place in Belgium and France from the autumn of to the 11 November Armistice of The outcome of the battles resulted in the formation of a battle front, which saw three years of attrition warfare in , and , with only a few months of mobile warfare at the start and at the end of four years of fighting.
To the French Army the battle front, which stretched for several hundred miles within the northern, north-eastern and eastern borders of the French nation, was translated into French.
The grey shaded areas on the map illustrate the main areas on the Western Front where the battles took place. The battlefields ranged from the northern end of this battle front on the Belgian coast to the village of Pfetterhouse on the Swiss frontier at its southern end.
The map shows the Franco-German border as it was in when the war broke out. An overview of the major battles that shaped the formation of the Western Front is given below the map. The historic Belgian city was located on high ground on the banks of the River Meuse.
The city was surrounded by fortresses, built as defences to protect it because it was located on an important route into Belgium along the Meuse river valley between the Dutch border and the Ardennes forests. Twelve main forts encircled the city, being built below ground on a radius of approximately miles from the city and with approximately 3 miles distance between each fort.
One German brigade succeeded in breaking through the line of forts. The Germans occupied the city on 7 August after attacks on it by a Zeppelin airship and artillery fire. Following the capitulation of the city the German Imperial troops marched south-westwards along the river Meuse valley to the fortified city of Namur.
Within the first few days of the outbreak of hostilities between Germany and France, on 7 August the French crossed the border into German-occupied Alsace at the southern end of the Vosges mountains near Thann.
Fighting took place on the Rhine plain of Alsace as the French attempted to capture Mulhouse and liberate the province of Alsace from its German occupation since In the Battle of Mulhouse 8 - 25 August this important industrial city on the Rhine river was entered and occupied two times by the French during August, but both times the German Seventh Army retook it. As the seven Imperial German Armies advanced westwards, according to a carefully timetabled, meticulously programmed German plan for an invasion of France by the name of The Schlieffen Plan , they came up against defiant Belgian and French troops intent on defending every inch of their national soil.
In the event of an attack from Imperial Germany the directive of the French military plan for the defence of France, Plan XVII , was that the French armies would mount an offensive operation on the eastern border with Germany this being the border with the German occupied provinces of Alsace and Lorraine and the north-eastern Franco-Belgian border in the Ardennes region.
On the declaration of war between Germany and France, the French Army was mobilized and advanced eastwards and north-eastwards to meet the German threat. The Battles of the Frontiers comprised four major battles:.
As with Alsace, the province of Lorraine had been under German occupation since and the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. It was a matter of national pride to liberate this province, rich in coal and iron deposits and a hub of rail and road networks at the fortified city of Metz.
Allowing the French to make some progress in their advance, and with the intent of drawing the French troop strength away from the German Armies successfully advancing through Belgium, the Germans then counter-attacked in Lorraine causing thousands of French casualties. From 21 August the French encountered the numerically superior German forces of the Fourth and Fifth Armies in the forests of the Ardennes region.
The Germans had selected good defensive positions in the woods in their field grey uniforms. The Germans were armed with heavy artillery pieces and machine guns. The attacking French soldiers were not as well-equipped nor were they as well trained in the tactics of defence as the Germans. Added to this the French soldiers were dressed in dark blue jackets and red pantalon trousers, which served to highlight their positions both in wooded terrain and open countryside.
The French attacks were cut down with heavy casualties. Although the French attacks had held up the German advance for a few days, by 28 August the French had been outnumbered and were compelled to withdraw to the towns of Verdun, Stenay and Sedan. The Belgian city of Namur lay at the junction of the Sambre and the Meuse rivers. It was also fortified with a ring of forts around it, but it could not hold out against the might of the huge German and Austrian siege howitzers.
With support from only one regiment of French troops being able to reach the city, the Belgian forces defending Namur were compelled to leave. By 25 August Namur was occupied by German troops. With the withdrawal of the French Armies from the Ardennes region further south, the right flank of the Allied troops still in the Sambre-Meuse area was becoming dangerously exposed. The French were moving north to the Sambre river and the Germans were continuing their advance to the south-west after the fall of Namur.
The French Fifth Army could not hold on and a general withdrawal was ordered. The Battle of Mons 23 August was one of the major battles in the Battles of the Frontiers and was the first encounter between British and German forces on the Western Front. The British Expeditionary Force B. The B. Having reached the area of Mons on 22 August the B. The next day, 23 August, the German First Army launched an attack at a strength of over two to one against four British divisions with a cavalry division in reserve.
The British managed to hold up the Germans, commanded by General von Kluck, inflicting heavy casualties by the superior rifle fire from the highly trained British soldiers. With the realization that the small British force was up against a much greater force in terms of German manpower and artillery, the British ordered a retreat from Mons. With orders to maintain contact with the French forces also retreating on their right flank, the British found themselves fighting a rearguard action during their withdrawal and fought the Battle of Le Cateau 26 August Following the fall of Charleroi and the British withdrawal from Mons, the French Fifth Army was also retreating south to the Oise river.
Quentin and Guise to hold a line there north of the Oise river on 29 August. The position at Guise was, however, precarious and the order was given to withdraw. The French Fifth Army continued its retreat south across the river Oise, destroying the bridges behind it. By the end of August the French and the German Armies had sustained some , casualties, including wounded or killed, on both sides. The German advance had successfully penetrated the French border in several places and was pressing on with its advance following on the heels of the French and British forces withdrawing in a south-easterly direction.
Following on from the failure of the French to hold the German advance at the Battle of Lorraine the French Second Army occupied an arc of high ground on a series of hills near Nancy.
Indeed, he arrived in his Royal Train to observe the German attack and to attend a victory parade in the captured city. The Germans caused damage to villages and to Nancy by artillery bombardments, but did not succeed in capturing the city.
The advance towards Paris of five of the German Armies stretching along a line from Verdun to Amiens was set to continue at the end of August The German First Army was within 30 miles of the French capital. However, the commander of the German First Army made a fateful change to the original directive of The Schlieffen Plan, making an assumption that the Allies were not in a position to hold out against an attack on Paris from the east.
The original Schlieffen Plan directive had been for German forces to attack Paris from the north in an encircling manoeuvre. Launching an attack east of Paris on 4 September the German First Army made progress in a southerly direction. However, the change to the Schlieffen Plan now exposed the right flank of the German attacking force.
With no option but to make a fighting withdrawal, all the German forces in the Marne river region retreated in a northerly direction, crossing the Aisne to the high ground of the Chemin des Dames ridge. It marked a decisive turn of events for the Allies in the early weeks of the war and Germany's Schlieffen Plan was stopped in its tracks. One of the famous events in the crucial defence of Paris is that Parisian taxis were sent from the city carrying French reinforcement troops to the fighting front.
The Germans dug defensive trenches with the intention of securing the position and preventing any further possibility of withdrawal. This battlefield area witnessed the beginnings of entrenched positions and the change from a mobile war to a static deadlock between the opposing forces. From this date the entrenchments would gradually spread along the whole length of the Western Front, would become deeper and more impregnable and would characterize the siege warfare fighting of the Western Front for the following three and a half years.
The consequence of the Germans establishing entrenched positions on the Chemin des Dames ridge was that the Allied armies were unsuccessful in making a frontal assault on it. They were, therefore, compelled to look for open ground on either flank of the German position. A French assault on the German First Army's exposed right flank i.
During the late August battles in southern Belgium and northern France, as the French and the British Expeditionary Force were being pushed towards the Marne by the Imperial German armies, the Belgian troops in Antwerp had posed a threat to the German First Army of General von Kluck by attacking his rear columns.
The Germans decided to take Antwerp to dispel this threat. On 28 th September the German heavy siege guns shelled Antwerp's outlying ring of forts, which fell. Three brigades of British Royal Naval troops were sent to support the defence of the port and city on 6 October.
However, on the day they arrived the Belgian government had already left the city. The order to evacuate the city was given for the next day, 7 October. Most of the British and Belgian troops in the city left in a south-westerly direction and the Belgian coast at Ostend.
The German Army moved in to occupy Antwerp two days later. Over the next few weeks from late September to the end of November the Allied and German Armies attempted to outflank one another, responding to each other manoeuvring their armies to make a stand or cover their exposed northern flank. Operationally it was not an intentional race to reach the French or Belgian coast before the other. However, the fight to capture the unoccupied ground on each other's northern flank, the German attempt to capture more French ground and reach Paris, against the French determination to hold up their enemy's advance resulted in the movement of the armies in a north-westerly direction towards the coast.
Battles took place as the armies sidestepped one another towards the French-Belgian coast and the Channel ports of Calais, Dunkirk, Ostend and Zeebrugge.
Battles of the Ypres Salient By the end of the battles of movement in the first weeks of the war had been brought to a halt. The fierce defence of strategic landmarks by the Allied forces resulted in a situation which became one of deadlock.
Carefully selecting the most favourable high ground the Imperial German Army began the construction of a strong defensive line from early in The consolidation of the Front Lines consisted of trenches, wire defences, mined dugouts and deep bunkers, reinforced concrete emplacements and selected strongpoints, usually a reinforced farm, in an Intermediate, Second and Third defensive line.
Gradually the building and digging was carried on on both sides of the wire along a distance of approximately miles, creating a more or less continous line of trenches separating the warring belligerents along the length of The Western Front.
In , and both sides made attempts to break the deadlock with major battle offensives. The characteristics of siege warfare which developed on the Western Front in these three years created conditions never witnessed before. Instead of expecting to achieve objectives at a considerable distance from the start of an offensive, the type of trench warfare fighting created a situation where attacks were carried out in phases with short distance objectives and usually following a bombardment of enemy trench lines beforehand.
This strategy led to prolonged periods of fighting with success counted in gains hundreds of yards rather than miles. The human cost of casualties and dead in such a grinding type of siege warfare would be recorded in the thousands in the space of a single day. Over a period of these three years both sides suffered heavy losses in human casualties and aminals, expenditure in ammunition and equipment. In spite of this the Front Lines stretching from the Swiss border to the Belgian coast remained more or less in the same location with little ground gained by either side.
From 10 December the French launched their first offensive against the entrenched defences of the German Front in the Champagne region, the First Champagne Offensive 10 December - 17 March The fighting went on for four months, with Allied attacks also carried out against the German Front from the Yser sector in the Belgian coastal region to the Woeuvre heights south of Verdun.
The gain in ground for the Allies was very little, being up against a well-entrenched enemy and Allied casualties from the campaign were in the region of 90, The Battle of Neuve Chapelle 10 - 13 March was launched with the aim of capturing the high ground of the Aubers Ridge and in so doing, to create a threat to the German Army in occupation of the city of Lille.
Although the British broke through the German Front Line and captured the village of Neuve Chapelle, the German Sixth Army carried out counter-attacks and the British attack was halted from advancing any further.